Neurons and Exercise

Neurons and Exercise

Friday, November 22, 2019


This is an excerpt from my 2nd book  

Silica Water the Secret of Healthy Blue Zone Longevity in the Aluminum Age 

The links between autism and aluminum accumulation in the brain were described in my 2016 book “Prevent Alzheimer’s, Autism, and Stroke”1. Autism is a modern mismatch disease in which our evolved mechanisms for aluminum protection are failing to protect us from an exponential increase in environmental aluminum exposure. For this reason we are witnessing an epidemic of autism with the rate of autism in the population increasing exponentially since it was first discovered by Leo Kanner in 1938 (see Figure 23).

Unfortunately aluminum absorption by the brain begins early in life. Aluminum is transferred from the maternal blood circulation to the fetal blood circulation via the placenta311. The brains of three fetuses, one full-term infant, and three premature infants from two to six months were analyzed for aluminum. These brains had a mean aluminum concentration of 1.2mcg per gram dry-weight of brain tissue with a standard deviation of 0.2mcg per gram312. Aluminum levels have been found to rise in the brains of fetuses during gestation and they rise the highest immediately after birth313. The blood-brain barrier that protects the brain is incompletely developed at birth and is even less mature in the human embryo.

Aluminum is introduced into the bodies of children by:
. Vaccinations with vaccines containing aluminum as an adjuvant

.Intestinal absorption from food, such as baby formula, colored candy, baking powder, drinking water, and a variety of pharmaceuticals, such as antacids

.Absorption through the skin from antiperspirants, astringents, cosmetics, and sunscreens

Aluminum salts injected into the body by vaccination slowly leach into the blood stream1,451. Approximately 50% of children with autism have increased intestinal permeability that is not seen in children without autism129. After a metal ion, such as aluminum, is ingested and absorbed by the intestine it becomes dissolved in the blood. Some of the metal is absorbed from the blood by the brain451. Also an aluminum salt applied to the skin can become dissolved in the blood446. These routes of aluminum accumulation may be causal factors in childhood developmental regression of a subgroup of those with autism (approximately 25%) that lose skills as they age314.

In 2012 an analysis was performed on hair from 44 children, age 3 to 9 years, diagnosed according to DSM-IV with ASD. It was discovered that the mean value for aluminum in the hair of autistic children (15.2mg/kg) was 90% higher than aluminum in the hair of non-autistic children (8.0mg/kg)130. This was the first analytical data linking high levels of accumulated aluminum to autism. In 2015 a second study demonstrated that aluminum levels in the hair of autistic children are higher than aluminum levels in non-autistic children. In this study the source of aluminum was traced to the use of aluminum cookware315.

In 2017 an analysis was performed in Professor Christopher Exley’s laboratory on the brains of 5 individuals with confirmed ASD, 4 males and 1 female. The mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of aluminum content across all five individuals for each lobe were 3.82(5.42), 2.30(2.00), 2.79(4.05) and 3.82(5.17) mcg per gram dry weight for the occipital, frontal, temporal and parietal lobes respectively. The highest amount of aluminum detected was 8.74 mcg per dry weight in the occipital lobe of a 15 year old boy. These are some of the highest aluminum levels in the brain yet recorded and clearly link aluminum accumulation with the autistic brain65.

In the brains of those with autism it has been found that the brain regions most impacted include the hippocampal complex and entorhinal cortex316. These areas of the autistic brain have smaller and less complex neuronal networks than normal316. This suggests a curtailment of normal neuron development and neuronal connectivity. These areas of the brain are also responsible for memory, learning, emotion, and behavior, disturbances of which comprise the core clinical features of autism317. Most importantly these are the same brain regions found to be hot spots for aluminum accumulation in the brain266. Glial cells that comprise part of the blood-brain-barrier were also found to be aluminum hotspots in the autistic brain65.

In 2018 a biochemical classification of children has been found to have high (88%) reliability for diagnosing those with ASD318. This biochemical classification is based primarily on low levels of metabolites from two biochemical pathways serving as biomarkers of ASD:

 Folate dependent one-carbon metabolism (FOCM)

 Transulfuration (TS)

Both of these pathways are inhibited directly and indirectly by aluminum1,100,101. Therefore low levels of these metabolites are biomarkers for both aluminum toxicity and ASD455. The reliability of this biochemical classification of children is more supportive information that aluminum accumulation is a causative factor of autism.

There has been no published study of silica water supplementation for elimination of some symptoms of autism. However, there is reason to believe that silica water may work to lower aluminum levels in autistic children and heal some symptoms of autism. The following is anecdotal information from Facebook and is provided by parents who gave their children OSA rich silica water for 3-8 months:

1. “I have become fascinated with this subject and the unbelievable simplicity of drinking a silicon rich mineral water to remove aluminum from the body since discovering Prof Chris Exley's excellent work at the end of 2017. We have been using this on our 9 yr. old son who has an ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) diagnosis and we saw clear cognitive improvements with him after 3 months on Volvic water. There were improvements to his mood, his laughing. He was more happy and had more speech, asking significantly more questions (this is MASSIVE!), and more imaginative play. … After 6 months on Volvic we switched to Fiji for the last two months and have seen dramatic improvements. He is so much calmer, better memory, understanding things more, eating more things and is generally eating more, will sit for dinner without requiring distractions, is laughing loads and showing emotions more, and is making progress which his teachers and tutors are also seeing. It's amazing to see! We have tried almost every protocol going since he was 3 and can confirm this is no placebo effect. This works, and is working for us and we hope more people try it with literally no down side. Amazing stuff!” September 2018

2. “My son is 21 and has autism. I started giving him Fiji water about 3 to 4 months ago. I didn't make him drink a certain amount or anything. He just drank it when he was thirsty, though he has always been a big water drinker. I didn't expect too much, but I can honestly say that I've noticed a difference! Mostly in the past month. I don't know how to explain it other than say he is more aware. Our conversations are getting to be more interactive. He initiated an ‘I love you’ for the first time in 21 years!!! Tonight, he said‘Thank you Mom, you're the best!!’. This is not typical for my son. Not because he didn't feel that way, he just never expressed it verbally before. I'm not saying this to promise other parents that you will get the same results, but I'm very grateful for what we have experienced so far. I now buy a few cases of Fiji water a month as I truly believe it is helping”. July 2018

The following anecdotal information is from Facebook and is provided by parents who saw improvement after giving their children silica rich water for just 6 to 8 weeks:

 1. “My daughter who is 12 has a moderate intellectual disability diagnosis as well as regressive autism level 2. She also had absence seizures and non-functional speech. Since starting Fiji water 6 weeks ago, 1/2 liter per day, she has been pointing to people and objects and commenting about them or asking questions - sharing an interest - the beginnings of conversation (which also had disappeared as she regressed). There has been a major change in her auditory processing as she now hears and responds to all speech. She is learning, retaining, and using information. Absence seizures have stopped, she is making eye contact, and receptive language has improved greatly where she now can follow 2-3 part instructions. I have seen changes in awareness, alertness, connection with others, conversation, and comprehension. It was like a light switched on. We have started and stopped the Fiji water especially initially. Improvements eased a bit upon stopping the Fiji protocol and picked up again upon restarting. I’ve done a lot for my daughter over the years but this has been by far the easiest intervention to apply with the most far reaching results across all areas for her”. February 2018

2. “My 9 year old son has really struggled with reading. All of the sudden his reading skills have just taken off!! To the point his teacher wanted to talk to me after school! She said he has improved so much in the past 2 weeks she wanted me to know how proud she was of him! It is amazing he has only been on the silica water for about 6 weeks so I can’t wait to see what the future holds.” February 2018

3. My 6 year old son has been drinking about ½ liter a day of Fiji and I’ve seen big improvements in his behavior. Also much more affectionate. My dad commented that it’s like he’s grown up 2 years in the last couple months. August 2018

4. “I have been using Fiji water for my 3.5 year old son for the last 6 weeks. He is autistic and was preverbal. After starting Fiji water, there is a lot of improvement in his speech, understanding of language and memory. He seems to have lost a bit of his chubbiness, no other negatives so far.” April 2018

5. “We have been using Silicade. After 4 weeks my 7 year old autistic son showed no signs of improvement. But after 8 weeks on Silicade his hyperactivity had decreased allowing him to attend an entire church service. After 12 weeks he is continuing to improve, and I'm starting to worry that the special school section he's in may notice and kick him out!”
Note: Silicade is homemade synthetic silica water with the same level of OSA as Fiji water. A recipe for Silicade is in Chapter 6.

The loss of weight (i.e. “lost … his chubbiness”) seen in some children and adults after starting on silica water is likely due to a rise in L-carnitine in the blood. L-Carnitine acts as a chaperone that facilitates the transfer of stored fat as fatty acids (i.e. triglyceride) into the mitochondria so they can be oxidized and metabolized for energy production. Both the production of L-carnitine and the oxidation of fatty acids are suppressed by aluminum toxicity resulting in increased BMI, as described previously in this chapter299-302,319.

Approximately one in five autistic children with intellectual disability and one in twelve autistic children without intellectual disability have epileptic seizures320. The anecdotal information that “absence seizures have stopped” has been followed by others who have also observed more control over seizures with silica water:

“My 6 year old son has epilepsy, acute confusionary migraines and autism. He has been drinking silica water and not only are his seizures and migraines much better controlled but he has gone from being more 2-3yr old level to almost right with his peers in most areas. Still he is academically delayed but actually learning now, he wasn't before.” Feb. 2018

This anecdotal information is encouraging and gives us hope that OSA rich drinking water allows the brain to heal from aluminum accumulation and provides recovery from autism. Of course supplemental silica water is only the first step. A diet high in OSA rich vegetables (see Chapter 4) and avoidance of aluminum ingestion (see Appendix II) are both suggested for ultimately stopping neurodegeneration by removing aluminum from autistic children’s brains.

Autism Due to Vaccine Injury
Children’s body-burden of aluminum from vaccinations exceeds that from dietary sources, such as baby formula1,321,322. By comparing ASD prevalence in 7 developed countries, it has been shown that both the number of aluminum containing vaccinations and the scheduling of these vaccinations during the first 4 months of a child’s life is strongly correlated with ASD prevalence. Those countries, such as Sweden, Iceland, and Finland, who schedule no aluminum containing vaccinations from birth to 3 months of age, have less than half the ASD prevalence when compared to the U.K. and the U.S.A. where babies are given aluminum containing vaccinations from birth to 2 months of age323. In addition, a positive correlation was found between autism prevalence and childhood vaccination uptake across the U.S.A. population324.

It is estimated that aluminum accumulation due to childhood vaccination may be causal a factor in childhood developmental regression of a subgroup of those with autism (approximately 25%) that lose skills as they age324. Here is anecdotal information from Facebook on how silica water can turn around this regression due to aluminum in vaccines:

1. “The reason I have got so interested in silica water is because of my grandbaby. He will be 2 in September. We believe he is vaccine injured because he completely stopped all talking and jabbering after his 1 year vaccines. He has gone backwards it seems. I first came across diatomaceous earth, then Fiji water, and now the local silica rich spring water. My daughter mixes his tea and juice with the silica water. I can say without a doubt it has changed him. He can now look you in the eyes, but before he would not make any eye contact. He has started jabbering more. My daughter texted me last night saying ‘Mama it's like I have a completely different baby he is looking at me and jabbering and trying to say mama again’. So we are keeping this all up in hope's we get our little man
back. But no more vaccines for us. She is still breastfeeding and I feel that has helped him a lot as well as keeping his immune system up.” August 2018

2. My son, aged 9, has severe autism which he developed after vaccination. It took about 6 months from this final vaccination for my son to go from a loving normal developed boy to having full blown Autism. Our boy was in fact gone, replaced by a stranger. I saw Dr. Exley's report on silica water and though we might as well give it a go. … I switched my son to Volvic Water about 4 weeks ago, within the first week we noticed slight improvements - good eye contact, sitting for longer, more verbal and is singing along to more adverts, some appropriate speech, and I actually got a cuddle and a kiss from him. … My son is currently on Day 32 of drinking silica water (Acilis mainly, sometimes Volvic). He is currently very calm, reciting TV adverts, full of smiles, looking though his DVDs. I plan to carry on giving my son Acilis Silica Water. At the moment we have experienced no negatives of switching to silica water. I don’t think my son would have improved this much or at all within this short timeframe (8 weeks). … We get little improvements every now and then, but for this amount of improvement it would have taken at least 2 - 3 years-worth of hard work and still doubtful that he would have improved this much without the silica water. It is definitely the silica water that is all that is different with his diet. After 3 days of drinking it, very subtle things started happening and after one week, there was no way I was going to stop the water. I too was skeptical of whether this would work as you hear so many stories and things to try and not much seems to do anything, but silica water should be on prescription to ASD kids.” Sept.2018

I recommend that the mother drink OSA silica water when breastfeeding. It has been shown that the mother gives almost all her silica to the baby during and immediately after pregnancy (see Figure 8)85.

Look for aluminum or alum containing vaccines in Table 37 or for a more up-to-date table:

Conclusion of Autism – Aluminum has been found in non-autistic brains of human fetuses, one full-term infant, and premature infants. These brains had a mean aluminum concentration of 1.2mcg per gram dry-weight of brain tissue with a standard deviation of 0.2mcg per gram311,312 This demonstrates that aluminum from the mother’s blood is transferred to the fetal blood circulation via the placenta and some of this aluminum normally accumulates in the fetuses’ and infant’s brains.
Two studies have found higher than normal aluminum levels in hair samples from autistic children. In addition, higher than normal aluminum levels (2.3 to 3.8 mcg per dry weight) have been found in the following regions of autistic brains: occipital, frontal, temporal and parietal lobes65. These regions of the brain known to be hot spots for aluminum accumulation266 are the same areas of the brain that are responsible for memory, learning, emotion, and behavior, disturbances that comprise the core clinical features of autism316,317. These regions of the autistic brain have smaller and less complex neuronal networks than normal316. Therefore, since aluminum is a known neurotoxin, aluminum can be considered a casual factor of autism.

It is likely that aluminum accumulation due to childhood vaccination is a causal factor in childhood developmental regression of a subgroup of those with autism (approximately 25%) that lose skills as they age314. Aluminum is used as an adjuvant in many of the vaccines given to children (Table 37). Aluminum containing vaccines have been linked to an increased prevalence of autism and seizures. OSA rich silica water taken by mother and baby has been shown to heal autism and childhood developmental regression that is likely caused by aluminum in vaccines.

Anecdotal information suggests that a diet that includes silica rich drinking water allows the brain to heal from aluminum accumulation and provides healing from autism. It is likely this occurs due to OSA’s ability to facilitate the elimination of aluminum from the brain.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Targeted Lead Detox with Thiamine, Zinc, and Selenomethionine

Targeted Lead Detox with Thiamine, Zinc, and Selenomethionine

“Lead has inflicted more deficits to human intelligence than any other pollutant.” P. Grandjean1
Lead is an element found in the earth’s crust. Because of its ductility and low cost it has been mined and processed into a variety of useful chemicals and products. More lead than ever before makes its way into our bodies primarily from our drinking water and the air we breathe. Since the amount of lead ingested and inhaled has increased, the amount of lead in our bones has also increased more than 10 fold1. Major sources of lead include:
·         Lead in drinking water – A 2016 American Water Works Association Study estimated that more than 6.1 million homes in the U.S. get drinking water through lead pipes called “service lines”2. Because of lead corrosion in these pipes, levels of lead exceeding the EPA’s action level (15mcg/L) persist in some cities. Recent examples include Flint, MI where 9,000 children were exposed to lead levels as high as 1500mcg/L and Newark, NJ where 10% of drinking water samples exceeded 66.9mcg/L.
·         Tetraethyl lead (TEL) as a gasoline additive – TEL was phased out as a road vehicle fuel additive in the U.S. by early 2000’s. However, TEL is still used in aviation gasoline (a.k.a. avgas) for planes with internal combustion engines and in gasoline for road vehicles of some developing countries3.
·         Lead from coal-fired power plants - In 2008 103 facilities in the U.S. were identified as emitting more than 1,000 pounds of lead per year into the atmosphere4.
·         Lead from paint - Lead paint is a major source of lead exposure in children5. It is estimated there were 38 million housing units in the U.S. that had lead paint in 20006.  Even a small paint chip can contain 10 to100 milligrams of lead7.  

On October 10, 2019 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a proposal to create a trigger level of 10mcg/L of lead in drinking water tested at water taps inside homes8. This proposal does not change the EPA’s current action level of 15mcg/L of lead in drinking water. The EPA’s trigger and action levels for lead in drinking water are not a threshold for public health so a lead reading below that level doesn’t mean the drinking water is safe9.
On November 12, 2008 the U.S. EPA substantially strengthened the national ambient air quality standard for lead (73 FR 66964).  The EPA revised the level of the primary (health-based) standard from 1.5mcg of lead per cubic meter to 0.15mcg of lead per cubic meter of air4.
Safe levels for lead exposure in air and drinking water have not been defined as health risks associated with lead have been shown at very low doses.  For example, over 99% of the lead present in blood accumulates in erythrocytes and of this over 80% is bound to an enzyme ALAD (delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydrogenase)10. A blood level of only 15mcg/L results in 50% inhibition of (ALAD) resulting the accumulation of aminolevulinc acid (ALA) that has neurotoxic activity contributing to lead-induced toxicity of the brain11,12.
Individuals with certain genetic characteristics may not be protected by current regulatory standards for lead. For example, the ALAD gene contains two co-dominate alleles that depending upon which allele is expressed by an individual person results in higher or lower amount of neurotoxic ALA in response to lead10-12. In addition, people with a recessive genetic disorder called ALAD porphyria have an almost complete lack of ALAD and for this reason have increased sensitivity to lead exposure13.  
Lead Exposure Causes IQ Loss in Children
Lead in the bodies of children causes developmental delays in their brains resulting in lower IQ1. Because of this children are more vulnerable to lead toxicity than are adults. In 1986 the World Health Organization (WHO) set a special lead exposure limit for children at 50% of the adult exposure limit. In 2008 the World governmental Committee on Toxicology (COT) estimated that infants and young children exposed to WHO’s special lead exposure limit would have approximately a 36 mcg/L increase in blood lead level. This increase in blood lead level would in turn cause a 0.36 – 1.8 point decline in children’s IQ1.
In 1991 the CDC lowered the definition of lead toxicity from blood lead levels of 600mcg/L to 100mcg/L14.  Currently the CDC recommends public health intervention when a child’s blood lead level is more than 50mcg/L15. But now there are three studies that show that lead can cause IQ deficits in children at levels well below 100mcg/L16-18. There is a greater change in IQ with respect to lead concentrations from 10 to 100mcg/L than the change in IQ from 100 to 200mcg/L of lead in blood17,18.  This surprising result indicates that most of the brain damage occurs at the lowest doses of lead14.
This loss of IQ due to lead is an example of what is called “chemical brain drain”.  There is no safe level of lead that avoids “chemical brain drain” in infants and children’s brains. Targeted detox aimed at removing lead from the body is the only way to prevent “chemical brain drain” due to lead.
In addition to IQ loss, other symptoms of lead at blood lead levels less than 100mcg/L in children include19:
·         Altered mood and behaviors that may contribute to learning deficits, including attention deficits, hyperactivity, autistic behaviors, conduct disorders, and delinquency.
·         Altered neuromotor and neurosensory function, including gross and fine motor skills, visual-motor integration, and hearing threshold.  
Lead Exposure Causes Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in Adults
Impairments in cognitive function, typically memory loss at a greater rate than seen in normal aging, is called mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MCI is a transitional state between the cognition seen in normal aging and dementia20. If the primary symptom is memory impairment, this state is called amnestic MCI. Amnestic MCI may not only be the first observable stage in Alzheimer’s disease but MCI is also a deficit in its own right that can be prevented and treated by modifying risk factors21. Chronic accumulation of lead in the body is an example of a risk factor for MCI that can be modified by targeted lead detox.
The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 2015 indicated 50mcg/L as a reference blood lead level for adults.  In spite of this the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommends removing workers from lead exposure if their blood lead level is above 600mcg/L, and readmit them to work when it is below 400mcg/L. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has set a biological exposure index of 300mcg/L for workers22.    
In an ideal world in order to test for lead causing MCI in adults would require two groups of people: one with and one without lead in their blood. However, in our lead-polluted world it is impossible to find an adult population that does not have some lead in their blood.  In 2016 40 non-lead exposed adults as a control group were age-matched to 45 lead-exposed workers and both their blood lead levels and cognition were tested.  The non-lead exposed group had a mean blood lead level of 154mcg/L and the lead exposed group has a mean blood lead level of 564mcg/L22.
Even with the control group not being lead-free, neuropsychological testing revealed a significant difference between the exposed and control groups in the areas of executive functions, short term memory, and psycho-emotional variables: tension, anxiety, and depression22. The conclusion is that greater lead exposure in adults does cause greater MCI.
Since there is no such thing as a “non-exposed” adult, even non-occupationally exposed adults have some MCI due to lead accumulation. This was tested in a cohort totaling 1089 community-dwelling elderly retired men with a mean age of 68.7 + 7.4 years. Blood and bone lead concentrations were measured along with cognitive assessment during the period 1991 to 1999. Performance on all cognitive tests worsened over time as function of increasing bone-lead level. The largest effects due to lead were observed to be on performance and reaction time scores in the visuospatial/visuomotor domain. It was concluded that non-occupational lead accumulation in adults does result in MCI23.    

In addition to MCI, other symptoms of lead at blood lead levels less than 100mcg/L in adults include19:
·         Altered mood and behaviors including risk of various psychiatric symptoms including anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia.
·         Altered neuromotor and neurosensory function including decreased reaction time and walking speed, tremor, and increased risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).  
Thiamine (Vitamin B1) for Targeted Lead Detox
Thiamine (a.k.a. vitamin B1) facilitates the elimination of lead in the bile and urine and lowers both tissue and blood lead levels.  When the diet of sheep was supplemented with thiamine (75mg/kg of body weight) there was a 72% increase in biliary and urinary excretion of lead24.  Calves treated for 20 days with both lead (5mg/day/kg) and thiamine (100mg/day) have 2 to 10 times less lead in their tissues as compared with calves treated with only lead25. Just two doses of thiamine (25mg/dose/kg of body weight) in the same day lowered the blood lead level 53% from 518mcg/L to 243 mcg/L in sheep treated with lead acetate (25mg/kg) for five days. In addition there was a significant reduction in serum zinc concentration in thiamine-treated animals26.  
In human studies with 13 men between 22-44 years of age who were being chronically and occupationally exposed to lead fumes for 10-15 years prior to and during the study period.  Their blood lead level at the start of the study averaged 441mcg/L and ranged from 319 to 501mcg/L. They took orally twice a day 50mg tablets of thiamine during the first 3 months and then took 100mg tablets twice a day for 30 days. Blood tests for lead revealed 14% lower blood lead levels after 4 months of treatment with 50-100mg of thiamine twice a day27. This is impressive in light of their past and continued occupational exposure to lead fumes.
Note that retention of oral thiamine in the human body is not more than 15mg even with mega doses of thiamine from 50 to 200mg27. After oral administration to humans thiamine’s elimination half-life is 154 minutes with only 2.5% recovered in the urine28.
Spectroscopic studies have revealed that lead interacts with the aminopyrimidine ring of thiamine leading to lead solubilization at physiological pH29. Lead also interacts with the sulfur atom in the thiazolium ring of thiamine. When this sulfur is blocked by acylation, such as in Benfotiamine, the modified thiamine can’t provide protection from lead30. Thiamine reduces lead levels in the blood, kidney, and bone during both simultaneous and post-exposure lead treatment29. The likely mechanism for targeted lead detox by thiamine involves facilitating both biliary and urinary excretion of lead when complexed with thiamine29,31.
Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Supplements
Thiamine (a.k.a. vitamin B1, B-1) can be taken as a supplement in pure form or in a B vitamin complex.  For instance a B50 complex tablet contains 50mg of thiamine and a B100 complex tablet contains 100mg of thiamine. Time-release B50 or B100 complexes are available from CVS and Puritan Pride. Non-time released tablets of just B-1 are available from Now Foods Company as 100mg tablets of B-1 (thiamine hydrochloride HCl) and Seeking Health as 50mg vegetarian capsules of B-1 (thiamine hydrochloride HCl).   
Zinc for Targeted Lead Detox
In rats fed a dietary supplement of lead acetate (50mg/kg of body weight) for 3 months there was higher than normal levels of lead in bone, kidney, prostate, testis, liver, epididymis, spleen, seminal vesicles, and blood. If these rats were co-administered a dietary supplement of zinc sulfate (1mg/kg of body weight) there was as much as a 30% decrease in the amount of lead accumulated in these organs32.
Zinc Supplements
The most bioavailable source of zinc is an amino acid or acid chelate of zinc such as zinc bisglycinate of zinc gluconate. Vendors of zinc supplements include Nature’s Way 30mg capsules of zinc bisglycinate and Carlson Labs 15mg tablets of zinc gluconate.         
Thiamine and Zinc for Targeted Lead Detox
In order to decrease the accumulation of lead in rats ingesting lead, it was found that a combination of thiamine and zinc as a dietary supplement is more effective than either thiamine or zinc alone33. Simultaneous dietary supplementation thiamine and zinc to rats that had been exposed to lead, decreased lead accumulation in the blood, liver, and kidney to a greater extent than either thiamine or zinc supplementation. Rats that were exposed to lead after having been given previously simultaneous thiamine and zinc supplementation had even a larger decrease of lead in the blood, liver, and kidneys. Therefore prevention is more effective than post-lead supplementation for decreasing lead accumulation33.
Selenomethionine for Targeted Lead Detox
Selenium can’t be solely recommended for lead detox. This is because, even though selenium has been shown to detoxify lead, it has not been shown to facilitate the excretion of lead.
In children, as whole blood and plasma selenium levels increase, serum lead levels decrease34.   In adults exposed to lead the levels of lead in the blood are 6% lower in those with higher blood selenium levels as compared with those with lower blood selenium levels35. Therefore in both children and adults higher blood plasma levels of selenium result in lower blood lead levels and less loss of IQ and cognition.
In the erythrocyte as concentration of lead increases so does the concentration selenium36. This is likely due to lead and selenium reacting together in the erythrocytes to form non-toxic lead selenide complex37. Therefore, lead toxicity increases the selenium and lead concentration in the erythrocytes while depleting selenium from the plasma. A selenium supplement would increase the selenium concentration in the plasma and increase the amount of lead detoxified in the erythrocytes, while decreasing lead in the blood plasma and decreasing IQ and cognition loss.

Selenomethionine Supplements
Supplements for human use are not regulated by the U.S. FDA. Because of this lack of regulation some selenomethionine supplements contain no selenomethionine or less than the amount stated on the label38-40. Therefore products with third party certification are recommended.  Certifying agencies include:, NSF International, U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP), and UL.  There are commercial test laboratories that also perform third party testing for purity and percent of selenium as selenomethionine.   
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has published a scientific opinion on acceptable selenium-enriched yeasts produced as selenomethionine supplements for human use. The source of selenium must be sodium selenite and the resulting product should contain 60 to 85% selenomethionine with less the 10% additional organic selenium and less than 1% inorganic selenium, such as residual sodium selenite. The dried product should contain no more than 2.5mg of selenium per gram41.
I am aware of only one selenium-enriched yeast supplement that has been tested by third parties. This is Bio-SelenoPrecise® tablets manufactured in Denmark by Pharma Nord under patent no. 1 478 732 B1. This type of L-selenomethionine supplement is 88.7% absorbed in Danish men with high habitual selenium intake42, however only about 34% may actually be free selenomethionine after gastrointestinal digestion43.  Pharma Nord packages tablets of Bio-SelenoPrecise® as 50, 100, and 200mcg of selenomethionine that can be cut in half with a pill-cutter.
Pharma Nord selenomethionine has been checked by two laboratories and it has 69-83% L-selenomethionine, 5% or less additional organic selenium, including selenocysteine, less than 1% inorganic selenium, and less than 2.2mg per gram of selenium. These results are summarized as product 3a, 3b, and 4 in EFSA’s Table 1 and they meet EFSA specifications for selenium-enriched yeast41.
Some selenomethionine supplements are made with higher purity than supplements made from selenium-enhanced yeast. However, it has been reported that plasma selenium is significantly higher when taking Pharma Nord Bio-SelenoPrecise® than seen in a comparable population of human subjects taking the same dose of higher purity selenomethionine44.
Manufactures of high purity yeast-free selenomethionine who have their product third party certified and/or tested include Sabinsa Corporation. Their Selenium SeLECT® product contains a minimum of 1.25% of L-selenomethionine, measured by HPLC, and 98.75% of dicalcium phosphate, measured by titration. Therefore it is 100% selenium as selenomethionine. Sabinsa Corp. has both UPC and NSF International product certification. Selenium SeLECT® is packaged and sold by Swanson (100mcg capsules) and Vitacost (200mcg capsules). Make sure the Supplement Facts on the bottles state: “Selenium from (as) Selenium SeLECT® L-selenomethionine”. 
The Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the U.S. Institute of Medicine has set the tolerable upper intake levels (UL) for selenium based upon age, including both selenium obtained from food and selenium obtained from supplements, as indicated in Table 145.

Recommendations for Targeted Lead Detox
Since we may be chronically exposed to lead from the air, drinking water, and lead paint, it is recommended to make a life-style choice of taking the following three supplements for the rest of your life:
·         Thiamine (a.k.a. vitamin B1, thiamin) -  50mg for children and 50-100mg for adults twice a day (morning and evening) or a time-released B50 or B100 complex once a day.
·         Zinc - 15mg for children and 30mg for adults per day (do not exceed 40mg per day)
·         Selenomethionine - The following amounts are recommended for targeted detox of not only lead but also mercury and arsenic:

·         Children 0 to 3 years of age: 25mcg/day
·         Children 4 to 8 years of age: 50mcg/day
·         Children 9 to 13 years of age: 100mcg/day
·         Adolescents 14 to 18 years of age and adults: 100-200mcg/day
Note that too much selenium will give you garlic-breath. So cut back on the amount of selenium per day if you are accused of having garlic-breath without eating garlic. 
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