Neurons and Exercise

Neurons and Exercise

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Preventing Alzheimer's in people with Down Syndrome

Excerpt from my book Silica Water the Secret to Blue Zone Longevity in the Aluminum Age.

Preventing Alzheimer’s Disease in Those with Down Syndrome

Children with Down syndrome have delayed growth, characteristic physical traits, and mild to moderate intellectual disability. Down syndrome (a.k.a. trisomy 21) is a genetic disorder involving the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21394. The extra chromosome occurs by chance with the parents of a Down child being genetically normal.  The possibility of giving birth to a Down child is 0.1% in mothers 20 years old and 3% in mothers 45 years old. Currently there is no known environmental factor that changes these percentages.
Environmental factors do lead to earlier onset of AD in those with Down syndrome. There is a six-fold increased gastrointestinal absorption of aluminum in individuals with Down syndrome395. This is likely why 90% of those with Down syndrome over 30 years of age have similar neuropathology to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients and at least 70% will develop dementia by age 55 to 60 years395,396. 
In general as they age, people absorb and accumulate aluminum at different rates accounting for why some get AD earlier than others77,397.  On average people under 77 years of age diagnosed with AD have a 64% greater gastrointestinal aluminum absorption rate than age-matched people without AD398,399. But on average all people over 77 years of age, with and without AD, have similar high rates of gastrointestinal aluminum absorption400. The major difference between AD patients with and without Down syndrome is an earlier onset of both gastrointestinal aluminum absorption and AD neuropathology in those with Down syndrome401.
Conclusion of Preventing Alzheimer’s in those with Down Syndrome - Aluminum does not cause Down syndrome but aluminum absorption is six-fold greater in individuals with Down syndrome than normal.  This high level of aluminum absorption increases the risk of Alzheimer’s in those with Downs resulting in 70% of those with Down syndrome developing dementia by age 55 to 60 years of age. In order to prevent Alzheimer’s it is recommended that those with Down syndrome take a daily OSA rich silica water supplement.  In addition a diet high in silica rich vegetables and grains is recommended.   
77.  Edwardson, J.A., et al.; Effect of silicon on gastrointestinal absorption of aluminum; The Lancet; 342(8865):211-12 (1993)
395.Moore, P.B., et al.; Gastrointestinal absorption of aluminum is increased in Downs syndrome; Biol. Psychiatry; Feb.; 15:41(4):488-92 (1997)
396.Lai, F. and Williams, R.S.; A prospective study of Alzheimer’s disease in Down syndrome; Arch Neurol.; 46:849-53 (1989)
397.Wilcock, D.M., and Griffin, W.S.; Down’s syndrome, neuroinflammation and Alzheimer’s neuropathogenesis; J. Neuroinflammation; 10:84 (2013)
398.House, E., et al.; Aluminum, iron, and copper in human brain tissues donated to the Medical Research Council’s cognitive functioning and ageing study;  Metallomics; Jan. 4(1):56-65 (2012)
399.Moore, P.B.; et al.; Absorption of aluminum-26 in Alzheimer’s disease, measured using accelerator mass spectrometry; 11:66-69 (2000)
400.Taylor, G.A., et al.; Gastrointestinal absorption of aluminum in Alzheimer’s disease: response to aluminum citrate; Age Ageing; Mar.; 21(2):81-90 (1992)
401.Hartley, D., et al.; Down syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease: Common pathways and common goals; Alzheime’s Dement.; June; 11(6):700-709 (2015)

Monday, January 20, 2020

Aluminum in the Brains of those with Alzheimer's -summary of previous studies and new study 2018

Aluminum in the Brains of those with Alzheimer’s Disease – Dennis N. Crouse
Prior Studies:
·         In 2005 Andrasi, et al. measured aluminum levels in specific brain regions (e.g. hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and two areas of the frontal cortex) of three AD patients and 3 non-demented controls.  Compared to the controls there was a 2.6-fold to 6.8-fold higher aluminum levels in these regions of the AD brain1. In 2009 Fjell, et al., looking at 142 healthy controls and 122 people with AD, found that these same regions of the brain had the most atrophy in those with AD compared to controls2.
·         In 2011 Russina, et al, measured both aluminum and mercury in the brains of 28 histologically-confirmed cases of AD and 27 healthy controls. There was a four-fold higher level of aluminum in the hippocampus of the AD patients compared to the controls.  There was no difference in mercury levels3.
·         In 2017 Exley, et al. measured aluminum in the brains of 12 people diagnosed with familial AD.  Aluminum levels were in all cases higher than normal and in 5 of the 12 cases they were eight-fold higher than normal4.
These three studies involved measuring aluminum in a total of only 43 brains of people diagnosed with AD. Scientists who were still doubtful that the known neurotoxin aluminum is a causal factor of AD have called for a larger study measuring aluminum in more AD brains and controls and more studies demonstrating aluminum neurotoxicity at concentrations found at physiological conditions.
New Study:
A new study was published in 2018 by McLachlan, et al., of 186 autopsied brains taken from those diagnosed with AD and 53 controls.  The amount of aluminum in the temporal lobe (Brodmann areas A20-A22) was 6-fold greater in those with AD than the controls5.  This study has increased the total number of autopsied brains with AD having significantly above normal levels of aluminum to 229. It can now be concluded based upon the study of these 229 brains that higher than normal levels of aluminum are both a hallmark of AD and a causal factor of AD.  Particularly when coupled with Fjell’s work with 122 people with AD showing that the regions of the brain that are aluminum hot-spots also are same the regions with most atrophy in the brains of those with AD2.
What is perhaps most interesting about McLachlan’s paper is the author’s ambivalence toward aluminum chelation therapy for removing aluminum from the brains of those with AD.  It is pointed out that “… once bound, aluminum is particularly refractory to chelation-based removal …”.   But then the author goes on to describe some of his own work6, first reported in 1991, by saying “Interestingly, the only clinical trial specifically designed to remove aluminum from the brains of live control and 48 AD patients using the trivalent metal chelator desferrioxamine (DF) resulted in halving the rate of neuro-degeneration and cognitive decline in the DF-treated group”.   
This ambivalence toward chelation therapy evidently is due to the authors being unaware of the work published in 2006 by Exley, et al., who stabilized and in some cases reversed the cognitive decline in 15 AD patients by using silica rich drinking water for 12 weeks to facilitate aluminum excretion7,8.  The authors must also be unaware of the work published in 1998 by Belles, et al. showing that silica rich drinking water given to rats for just 5 weeks dramatically lowered aluminum levels in 6 regions of the brain (e.g.  cortex, hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, thalamus, and olfactory lobe)9.  Even aluminum in bone was over 90% removed in just 5 weeks by silica rich drinking water9.   

Study published in Jan 2020 after this write up.  This study analyzed brains of people with Familial Alzheimer's.  I will do a write up soon and add here. 
1.      Andrasi, E., et al.; Brain Al, Mg, and P contents and Alzheimer-diseased patients; J. Alzheimer’s Dis.; 7:273-84 (2005)
2.      Fjell, A.M., et al.; One-year brain atrophy evident in healthy aging; J. Neurosci.; Dec.; 29(48):15223-31 (2009)
3.      Rusina, R., et al.; Higher aluminum concentrations in Alzheimer’s disease after Box-Cox data transformation; Neurotox. Res.; 20, 329-33 (2011)
4.      Mirza, A., et al.; Aluminum in brain tissue in familial Alzheimer’s disease; J. Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology; Mar.; 40:30-36 (2017)
5.      McLachlan, D.R.C., et al.; Aluminum in neurological disease – a 36 year multicenter study; J. Alzheimer’s Dis. Parkinsonism; 8: 457 (2018)
6.      McLachlan, D.R.C.; et al.; Intramuscular desferrioxamine in patients with Alzheimer’s disease; The Lancet; 337(8753):1304-8 (1991)
7.      Exley, C., et al.; Non-invasive therapy to reduce the body burden of aluminum in Alzheimer’s  disease; J. Alzheimer’s Dis.; Sept., 10(1):17-24 (2006)
8.      Davenward, S., et al.; Silicon-rich mineral water as a non-invasive test of the ‘aluminum hypothesis’ in Alzheimer’s disease; J. Alzheimer’s Dis.; 33(2):423-30 (2013)
9.      Belles, M., et al.; Silicon reduces aluminum accumulation in rats: Relevance to the aluminum hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease; Alzheimer’s Dis. Assoc. Disorders; 12(2):83-7 (1998)

Friday, November 22, 2019


This is an excerpt from my 2nd book  

Silica Water the Secret of Healthy Blue Zone Longevity in the Aluminum Age 


The links between autism and aluminum accumulation in the brain were described in my 2016 book “Prevent Alzheimer’s, Autism, and Stroke”1. Autism is a modern mismatch disease in which our evolved mechanisms for aluminum protection are failing to protect us from an exponential increase in environmental aluminum exposure. For this reason we are witnessing an epidemic of autism with the rate of autism in the population increasing exponentially since it was first discovered by Leo Kanner in 1938 (see Figure 23).

Unfortunately aluminum absorption by the brain begins early in life. Aluminum is transferred from the maternal blood circulation to the fetal blood circulation via the placenta311. The brains of three fetuses, one full-term infant, and three premature infants from two to six months were analyzed for aluminum. These brains had a mean aluminum concentration of 1.2mcg per gram dry-weight of brain tissue with a standard deviation of 0.2mcg per gram312. Aluminum levels have been found to rise in the brains of fetuses during gestation and they rise the highest immediately after birth313. The blood-brain barrier that protects the brain is incompletely developed at birth and is even less mature in the human embryo.

Aluminum is introduced into the bodies of children by:
. Vaccinations with vaccines containing aluminum as an adjuvant

.Intestinal absorption from food, such as baby formula, colored candy, baking powder, drinking water, and a variety of pharmaceuticals, such as antacids

.Absorption through the skin from antiperspirants, astringents, cosmetics, and sunscreens

Aluminum salts injected into the body by vaccination slowly leach into the blood stream1,451. Approximately 50% of children with autism have increased intestinal permeability that is not seen in children without autism129. After a metal ion, such as aluminum, is ingested and absorbed by the intestine it becomes dissolved in the blood. Some of the metal is absorbed from the blood by the brain451. Also an aluminum salt applied to the skin can become dissolved in the blood446. These routes of aluminum accumulation may be causal factors in childhood developmental regression of a subgroup of those with autism (approximately 25%) that lose skills as they age314.

In 2012 an analysis was performed on hair from 44 children, age 3 to 9 years, diagnosed according to DSM-IV with ASD. It was discovered that the mean value for aluminum in the hair of autistic children (15.2mg/kg) was 90% higher than aluminum in the hair of non-autistic children (8.0mg/kg)130. This was the first analytical data linking high levels of accumulated aluminum to autism. In 2015 a second study demonstrated that aluminum levels in the hair of autistic children are higher than aluminum levels in non-autistic children. In this study the source of aluminum was traced to the use of aluminum cookware315.

In 2017 an analysis was performed in Professor Christopher Exley’s laboratory on the brains of 5 individuals with confirmed ASD, 4 males and 1 female. The mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of aluminum content across all five individuals for each lobe were 3.82(5.42), 2.30(2.00), 2.79(4.05) and 3.82(5.17) mcg per gram dry weight for the occipital, frontal, temporal and parietal lobes respectively. The highest amount of aluminum detected was 8.74 mcg per dry weight in the occipital lobe of a 15 year old boy. These are some of the highest aluminum levels in the brain yet recorded and clearly link aluminum accumulation with the autistic brain65.

In the brains of those with autism it has been found that the brain regions most impacted include the hippocampal complex and entorhinal cortex316. These areas of the autistic brain have smaller and less complex neuronal networks than normal316. This suggests a curtailment of normal neuron development and neuronal connectivity. These areas of the brain are also responsible for memory, learning, emotion, and behavior, disturbances of which comprise the core clinical features of autism317. Most importantly these are the same brain regions found to be hot spots for aluminum accumulation in the brain266. Glial cells that comprise part of the blood-brain-barrier were also found to be aluminum hotspots in the autistic brain65.

In 2018 a biochemical classification of children has been found to have high (88%) reliability for diagnosing those with ASD318. This biochemical classification is based primarily on low levels of metabolites from two biochemical pathways serving as biomarkers of ASD:

 Folate dependent one-carbon metabolism (FOCM)

 Transulfuration (TS)

Both of these pathways are inhibited directly and indirectly by aluminum1,100,101. Therefore low levels of these metabolites are biomarkers for both aluminum toxicity and ASD455. The reliability of this biochemical classification of children is more supportive information that aluminum accumulation is a causative factor of autism.

There has been no published study of silica water supplementation for elimination of some symptoms of autism. However, there is reason to believe that silica water may work to lower aluminum levels in autistic children and heal some symptoms of autism. The following is anecdotal information from Facebook and is provided by parents who gave their children OSA rich silica water for 3-8 months:

1. “I have become fascinated with this subject and the unbelievable simplicity of drinking a silicon rich mineral water to remove aluminum from the body since discovering Prof Chris Exley's excellent work at the end of 2017. We have been using this on our 9 yr. old son who has an ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) diagnosis and we saw clear cognitive improvements with him after 3 months on Volvic water. There were improvements to his mood, his laughing. He was more happy and had more speech, asking significantly more questions (this is MASSIVE!), and more imaginative play. … After 6 months on Volvic we switched to Fiji for the last two months and have seen dramatic improvements. He is so much calmer, better memory, understanding things more, eating more things and is generally eating more, will sit for dinner without requiring distractions, is laughing loads and showing emotions more, and is making progress which his teachers and tutors are also seeing. It's amazing to see! We have tried almost every protocol going since he was 3 and can confirm this is no placebo effect. This works, and is working for us and we hope more people try it with literally no down side. Amazing stuff!” September 2018

2. “My son is 21 and has autism. I started giving him Fiji water about 3 to 4 months ago. I didn't make him drink a certain amount or anything. He just drank it when he was thirsty, though he has always been a big water drinker. I didn't expect too much, but I can honestly say that I've noticed a difference! Mostly in the past month. I don't know how to explain it other than say he is more aware. Our conversations are getting to be more interactive. He initiated an ‘I love you’ for the first time in 21 years!!! Tonight, he said‘Thank you Mom, you're the best!!’. This is not typical for my son. Not because he didn't feel that way, he just never expressed it verbally before. I'm not saying this to promise other parents that you will get the same results, but I'm very grateful for what we have experienced so far. I now buy a few cases of Fiji water a month as I truly believe it is helping”. July 2018

The following anecdotal information is from Facebook and is provided by parents who saw improvement after giving their children silica rich water for just 6 to 8 weeks:

 1. “My daughter who is 12 has a moderate intellectual disability diagnosis as well as regressive autism level 2. She also had absence seizures and non-functional speech. Since starting Fiji water 6 weeks ago, 1/2 liter per day, she has been pointing to people and objects and commenting about them or asking questions - sharing an interest - the beginnings of conversation (which also had disappeared as she regressed). There has been a major change in her auditory processing as she now hears and responds to all speech. She is learning, retaining, and using information. Absence seizures have stopped, she is making eye contact, and receptive language has improved greatly where she now can follow 2-3 part instructions. I have seen changes in awareness, alertness, connection with others, conversation, and comprehension. It was like a light switched on. We have started and stopped the Fiji water especially initially. Improvements eased a bit upon stopping the Fiji protocol and picked up again upon restarting. I’ve done a lot for my daughter over the years but this has been by far the easiest intervention to apply with the most far reaching results across all areas for her”. February 2018

2. “My 9 year old son has really struggled with reading. All of the sudden his reading skills have just taken off!! To the point his teacher wanted to talk to me after school! She said he has improved so much in the past 2 weeks she wanted me to know how proud she was of him! It is amazing he has only been on the silica water for about 6 weeks so I can’t wait to see what the future holds.” February 2018

3. My 6 year old son has been drinking about ½ liter a day of Fiji and I’ve seen big improvements in his behavior. Also much more affectionate. My dad commented that it’s like he’s grown up 2 years in the last couple months. August 2018

4. “I have been using Fiji water for my 3.5 year old son for the last 6 weeks. He is autistic and was preverbal. After starting Fiji water, there is a lot of improvement in his speech, understanding of language and memory. He seems to have lost a bit of his chubbiness, no other negatives so far.” April 2018

5. “We have been using Silicade. After 4 weeks my 7 year old autistic son showed no signs of improvement. But after 8 weeks on Silicade his hyperactivity had decreased allowing him to attend an entire church service. After 12 weeks he is continuing to improve, and I'm starting to worry that the special school section he's in may notice and kick him out!”
Note: Silicade is homemade synthetic silica water with the same level of OSA as Fiji water. A recipe for Silicade is in Chapter 6.

The loss of weight (i.e. “lost … his chubbiness”) seen in some children and adults after starting on silica water is likely due to a rise in L-carnitine in the blood. L-Carnitine acts as a chaperone that facilitates the transfer of stored fat as fatty acids (i.e. triglyceride) into the mitochondria so they can be oxidized and metabolized for energy production. Both the production of L-carnitine and the oxidation of fatty acids are suppressed by aluminum toxicity resulting in increased BMI, as described previously in this chapter299-302,319.

Approximately one in five autistic children with intellectual disability and one in twelve autistic children without intellectual disability have epileptic seizures320. The anecdotal information that “absence seizures have stopped” has been followed by others who have also observed more control over seizures with silica water:

“My 6 year old son has epilepsy, acute confusionary migraines and autism. He has been drinking silica water and not only are his seizures and migraines much better controlled but he has gone from being more 2-3yr old level to almost right with his peers in most areas. Still he is academically delayed but actually learning now, he wasn't before.” Feb. 2018

This anecdotal information is encouraging and gives us hope that OSA rich drinking water allows the brain to heal from aluminum accumulation and provides recovery from autism. Of course supplemental silica water is only the first step. A diet high in OSA rich vegetables (see Chapter 4) and avoidance of aluminum ingestion (see Appendix II) are both suggested for ultimately stopping neurodegeneration by removing aluminum from autistic children’s brains.

Autism Due to Vaccine Injury

Children’s body-burden of aluminum from vaccinations exceeds that from dietary sources, such as baby formula1,321,322. By comparing ASD prevalence in 7 developed countries, it has been shown that both the number of aluminum containing vaccinations and the scheduling of these vaccinations during the first 4 months of a child’s life is strongly correlated with ASD prevalence. Those countries, such as Sweden, Iceland, and Finland, who schedule no aluminum containing vaccinations from birth to 3 months of age, have less than half the ASD prevalence when compared to the U.K. and the U.S.A. where babies are given aluminum containing vaccinations from birth to 2 months of age323. In addition, a positive correlation was found between autism prevalence and childhood vaccination uptake across the U.S.A. population324.

It is estimated that aluminum accumulation due to childhood vaccination may be causal a factor in childhood developmental regression of a subgroup of those with autism (approximately 25%) that lose skills as they age324. Here is anecdotal information from Facebook on how silica water can turn around this regression due to aluminum in vaccines:

1. “The reason I have got so interested in silica water is because of my grandbaby. He will be 2 in September. We believe he is vaccine injured because he completely stopped all talking and jabbering after his 1 year vaccines. He has gone backwards it seems. I first came across diatomaceous earth, then Fiji water, and now the local silica rich spring water. My daughter mixes his tea and juice with the silica water. I can say without a doubt it has changed him. He can now look you in the eyes, but before he would not make any eye contact. He has started jabbering more. My daughter texted me last night saying ‘Mama it's like I have a completely different baby he is looking at me and jabbering and trying to say mama again’. So we are keeping this all up in hope's we get our little man
back. But no more vaccines for us. She is still breastfeeding and I feel that has helped him a lot as well as keeping his immune system up.” August 2018

2. My son, aged 9, has severe autism which he developed after vaccination. It took about 6 months from this final vaccination for my son to go from a loving normal developed boy to having full blown Autism. Our boy was in fact gone, replaced by a stranger. I saw Dr. Exley's report on silica water and though we might as well give it a go. … I switched my son to Volvic Water about 4 weeks ago, within the first week we noticed slight improvements - good eye contact, sitting for longer, more verbal and is singing along to more adverts, some appropriate speech, and I actually got a cuddle and a kiss from him. … My son is currently on Day 32 of drinking silica water (Acilis mainly, sometimes Volvic). He is currently very calm, reciting TV adverts, full of smiles, looking though his DVDs. I plan to carry on giving my son Acilis Silica Water. At the moment we have experienced no negatives of switching to silica water. I don’t think my son would have improved this much or at all within this short timeframe (8 weeks). … We get little improvements every now and then, but for this amount of improvement it would have taken at least 2 - 3 years-worth of hard work and still doubtful that he would have improved this much without the silica water. It is definitely the silica water that is all that is different with his diet. After 3 days of drinking it, very subtle things started happening and after one week, there was no way I was going to stop the water. I too was skeptical of whether this would work as you hear so many stories and things to try and not much seems to do anything, but silica water should be on prescription to ASD kids.” Sept.2018

I recommend that the mother drink OSA silica water when breastfeeding. It has been shown that the mother gives almost all her silica to the baby during and immediately after pregnancy (see Figure 8)85.

Look for aluminum or alum containing vaccines in Table 37 or for a more up-to-date table:

Conclusion of Autism – Aluminum has been found in non-autistic brains of human fetuses, one full-term infant, and premature infants. These brains had a mean aluminum concentration of 1.2mcg per gram dry-weight of brain tissue with a standard deviation of 0.2mcg per gram311,312 This demonstrates that aluminum from the mother’s blood is transferred to the fetal blood circulation via the placenta and some of this aluminum normally accumulates in the fetuses’ and infant’s brains.

Two studies have found higher than normal aluminum levels in hair samples from autistic children. In addition, higher than normal aluminum levels (2.3 to 3.8 mcg per dry weight) have been found in the following regions of autistic brains: occipital, frontal, temporal and parietal lobes65. These regions of the brain known to be hot spots for aluminum accumulation266 are the same areas of the brain that are responsible for memory, learning, emotion, and behavior, disturbances that comprise the core clinical features of autism316,317. These regions of the autistic brain have smaller and less complex neuronal networks than normal316. Therefore, since aluminum is a known neurotoxin, aluminum can be considered a causal factor of autism.

It is likely that aluminum accumulation due to childhood vaccination is a causal factor in childhood developmental regression of a subgroup of those with autism (approximately 25%) that lose skills as they age314. Aluminum is used as an adjuvant in many of the vaccines given to children (Table 37). Aluminum containing vaccines have been linked to an increased prevalence of autism and seizures. OSA rich silica water taken by mother and baby has been shown to heal autism and childhood developmental regression that is likely caused by aluminum in vaccines.

Anecdotal information suggests that a diet that includes silica rich drinking water allows the brain to heal from aluminum accumulation and provides healing from autism. It is likely this occurs due to OSA’s ability to facilitate the elimination of aluminum from the brain.