Neurons and Exercise

Neurons and Exercise

Wednesday, December 5, 2018

Saftey of Ingesting Zeolites


Safety of Clinoptilolite Zeolite Nanoparticles
Drinking OSA rich silica water has been shown in scientific studies to facilitate the elimination of aluminum from the body and brain1-3.  Oral administration of nanoparticles of clinoptilolite zeolite has not been shown to facilitate elimination of aluminum in fact it has been shown that there is a net release of dissolved aluminum in simulated human gastric fluid4.
Simulated ingestion of larger particles of clinoptilolite zeolite has been shown to result in a net release of dissolved aluminum4 in spite of the proven ability of clinoptilolite zeolite to absorb aluminum5.  Dissolved aluminum causes the accumulation of aluminum in the brain6. This results in damage to neurons, since aluminum is neurotoxic and has been found to be a causal factor in autism, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease 7.  A higher than normal level of aluminum has been found in the brains of people with all of these conditions and diseases8-13.
It is known that zeolites in acid, such as hydrochloric that is found in the stomach, slowly dissolve releasing aluminum ions into solution14.  It is also known that in the presence of dicarboxylic acids (i.e. oxalic) or tricarboxylic acids (i.e. citric) that can be found in the stomach and upper GI tract, aluminum dissolution from zeolites is enhanced14.  In addition, the smaller the size of the zeolite particle (i.e. nanoparticles) the faster aluminum is dissolved from the zeolite14.  This is due to the very high surface area to weight ratio of nanoparticles and the short diffusion path within nanoparticles. Finally any free aluminum dissolved from zeolite can be absorbed in the upper GI tract and go into the blood and accumulate in the body and brain.
Large particles (45-75 micometer) of clinoptilolite zeolite were subjected to simulated gastric fluid made from 0.1M hydrochloric acid and 3.2 mg per milliliter of pepsin with pH adjustment with 0.1N sodium hydroxide to pH 2.0.  The concentration of zeolite was 3 grams per 100 milliliters. Controls were untreated clinoptilolite zeolite.  After 1 hour at 37oC the zeolite in each “gastric digested sample” and control was collected by centrifugation and freeze-dried.  Elemental analysis of the control and gastric digested zeolites revealed on average a 3.8% decrease in aluminum and a 1.3% decrease in silicon per gram of zeolite.  The researchers pointed out that this loss of material during gastric digestion “might be related to the possible dissolution process of aluminosilicates at the surface layer …”4. This is disturbing because a 1 nanometer sized particle has over 10,000 times more surface area than the large particles used in this study. Therefore it can be predicted that even more aluminum will be dissolved in the stomach after ingestion of nanoparticles.  In addition, even though clinoptilolite zeolites do remove some aluminum ions from solution5 there was a net release of dissolved aluminum during gastric digestion4.
Studies like this have recently convinced the FDA that clinoptilolite zeolites should not be generally regarded as safe (GRAS) when ingested in animal feed.  In a May 4th 2018 letter from Dr. David Edwards, the Director of the Division of Animal Feeds for the FDA, to a producer of animal feed containing clinoptilolite zeolites, Dr. Edwards said their animal feeds are not GRAS because the use of clinoptilolite zeolites in animal feed “… could cause potential excess levels of aluminum … in some species”15.  
Before anyone can say that zeolites are safe for human ingestion they must test the zeolite for release of dissolved aluminum at the pH of the stomach and upper GI tract for a time period that reflects the zeolite’s residence time in these regions of the body.  This work should include added acidification with di and tri carboxylic acids occasionally found in the stomach and upper GI tract. Until this work is peer reviewed and published in a scientific journal, use of zeolites, such as clinoptilolite zeolite nanoparticles, should not be recommended. 
References

1.      Belles, M., et al.; Silicon reduces aluminum accumulation in rats: Relevance to the aluminum hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease; Alzheimer Disease Associated Disorders; 12(2):83-87 (1998)
2.      Davenward, S., et al.; Silicon-rich mineral water as a non-invasive test of the ‘aluminum hypothesis’ in Alzheimer’s disease; J. Alzheimer’s Dis.; 33(2):423-30 (2013)
3.      Minshal, C., et al.; Aluminum in human sweat; J. Trace elem. Med. Biol.; 28:87-88 (2014)
4.      Kavak, D.D., et al.; Investigation of structural properties of clinoptilolite rich zeolites in simulated digestive conditions and their cytotoxicity against Caco-2 cells in vitro; J. Porous Materials; April, 1-8 (2012)
5.      Sirotiak, M., et al.; Sorption kinetics of selected heavy metals adsorption to natural and Fe(III) modified zeolite tuff containing clinoptilolite mineral; Research Paper – Slovak University of Technology; Bratislava; 23(36):41-7 (2015)
6.      Domingo, L., et al.; Age related effects of aluminum ingestion on brain aluminum accumulation and behavior in rats; Life Sci.; 58(17):1387-95 (1996)
7.      Crouse, D.N.; Silica water the secret of healthy blue zone longevity in the aluminum age; Etiological Pub.; (2018)
8.      Mold, M., et al.; Aluminum in brain tissue in autism; J. Trace Elements in Med. Biol.; March; 46:76-82 (2018)
9.      Mirza, A., et al.; Aluminum in brain tissue in familial Alzheimer’s disease; J. Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology; Mar.; 40:30-36 (2017)
10.  Andrasi, E., et al.; Brain Al, Mg, and P contents of control and Alzheimer-diseased patients; J. Alzheimer’s Dis.; 7:273-84 (2005)
11.  Mold, M., et al.; Aluminium in brain tissue in multiple sclerosis; Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health; 15(8):1777 (2018) Including supplementary material p1-6 (2018)
12.  Hirsch, E.C., et al.; Iron and aluminum increase in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson’s disease: an X-ray microanalysis; J. Neurochem.; Feb.; 56(2):446-51 (1991)
13.  Good, P.F., et al.; Neuromelanin-containing neurons of the substantia nigra accumulate iron and aluminum in Parkinson’s disease: a LAMMA study; Oct.; 593(2):343-6 (1992)
14.  Van Donk, S., et al.; Generation, characterization, and impact of mesopores in zeolite catalysts; Catalysis Rev.; Mesopores in Zeolite Catalysts; Marcel Dekker; New York, NY; Jan.; 297-319 (2003)
15.   Edwards, D.; FDA U.S. Food & Drug Admin.; Re: GRAS Notice No. AGRN 25; Letter to Thomas Bergen, V.P.; G-Sciences; May 4 (2018)

Monday, November 26, 2018

Aluminum Myth Busting


Aluminum is a known neurotoxin that is added to drinking water, pharmaceuticals, vaccines, and food, such as colored candy and baked goods. In order to convince people that these products are safe, consumers have been told to blindly believe the following aluminum myths:
·         Aluminum compounds are inert or insoluble preventing entry into the body
·         Any aluminum that does get into the body is immediately excreted
·         Any aluminum that is not excreted is deposited in biologically inert stores such as bone
All of these myths have been scientifically disproven but they are not forgotten as they continue to be repeated by the aluminum industry, Alzheimer’s Association, and medical profession.
In 1996 it was discovered that rats of all ages accumulate aluminum in their bodies from their drinking water1. In 1998 this accumulated aluminum was found in five organs (e.g. brain, bone, kidney, liver, spleen) and six lobes of the brain (e.g. cortex, hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, thalamus, olfactory bulb). In addition, aluminum was found to not be inert but is mobile by continuously diffusing in the body from places of high concentration to places of low concentration. Because of aluminum’s diffusivity it is partially removed (58-79%) from all organs of the body, including bones and all six lobes of the brain, by administering OSA rich silica water every five days over a period of 5 weeks2.
Some of these observations with rats have also been shown to be the case for humans. OSA rich silica water facilitates the elimination of aluminum in urine and perspiration3,4. It has also been found that some people are “Super Aluminum Absorbers”.  These people have more aluminum in their brain than normal and include those with sporadic5 and familial Alzheimer’s6, autism7, multiple sclerosis8, and Parkinson’s9-11.  For more details see “Silica water the Secret of Healthy Blue Zone Longevity in the Aluminum Age” by Dennis N. Crouse12.
After drinking silica water, OSA is absorbed into the blood and carried by the blood to kidney and sweat gland lumens. The pH of blood is 7.4, urine is 6.5-8.0, and at high rates of perspiration, as seen while exercising, the pH of sweat is near neutrality (e.g. pH 7)13. OSA reacts with aluminum above pH 5.5 forming a non-toxic chemical called HAS14.  This reaction lowers the concentration of aluminum in blood and kidney and sweat gland lumens. This lower aluminum concentration favors more aluminum diffusing from places of higher concentration into the blood and these lumens for reaction with OSA.  Thereby OSA detoxifies aluminum and facilitates its elimination as HAS in the urine and perspiration.
Unlike chelators that can remove many different ions from the body, OSA very specifically removes just aluminum. An example of its specificity is that OSA does not facilitate the elimination of iron, even though iron is of similar size and ionic charge compared to aluminum5. Also unlike chelators that reversibly complex with many types of ions, OSA is only known to react with aluminum to irreversibly form HAS that is stable above pH 5.5.   
In conclusion the aluminum myths have been busted by scientific research and we can now say the following three facts have been proven to be true:
·         Aluminum ions and some aluminum compounds enter our bodies from ingested water, food, and pharmaceuticals by being absorbed from the gut into the blood. In addition, aluminum ions and compounds enter our bodies from injected vaccines.  
·         This ingested and injected aluminum accumulates in our organs and is a causal factor of Alzheimer’s, autism, heart disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s, and some cancers.
·         Accumulated aluminum is primarily non-inert as by drinking OSA most of the accumulated aluminum diffuses from all organs, including bones, into the blood, urine inside kidney lumen, and sweat inside sweat gland lumens. In these lumens OSA reacts with aluminum to form non-toxic HAS followed by excretion in urine and perspiration.
For more details see “Prevent Alzheimer’s, Autism, and Stroke with 7 Supplements, 7 Lifestyle Choices, and a Dissolved Mineral” by Dennis N. Crouse15.
References
1.      Domingo, L., et al.; Age related effects of aluminum ingestion on brain aluminum accumulation and behavior in rats; Life Sci.; 58(17):1387-95 (1996)
2.      Belles, M., et al.; Silicon reduces aluminum accumulation in rats: Relevance to the aluminum hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease; Alzheimer Disease Associated Disorders; 12(2):83-87 (1998)
3.      Exley, C., et al.; Non-invasive therapy to reduce the body burden of aluminum in Alzheimer’s disease; J. Alzheimer’s Disease; 10:17-24 (2006)
4.      Minshal, C., et al.; Aluminum in human sweat; J. Trace elem. Med. Biol.; 28:87-88 (2014)
5.      Andrasi, E., et al.; Brain Al, Mg, and P contents of control and Alzheimer-diseased patients; J. Alzheimer’s Dis.; 7:273-84 (2005)
6.      Mirza, A., et al.; Aluminum in brain tissue in familial Alzheimer’s disease; J. Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology; Mar.; 40:30-36 (2017)
7.      Mold, M., et al.; Aluminum in brain tissue in autism; J. Trace Elements in Med. Biol.; March; 46:76-82 (2018)
8.      Mold, M., et al.; Aluminium in brain tissue in multiple sclerosis; Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health; 15(8):1777 (2018) Including supplementary material p1-6 (2018)
9.      Hirsch, E.C., et al.; Iron and aluminum increase in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson’s disease: an X-ray microanalysis; J. Neurochem.; Feb.; 56(2):446-51 (1991)
10.  Good, P.F., et al.; Neuromelanin-containing neurons of the substantia nigra accumulate iron and aluminum in Parkinson’s disease: a LAMMA study; Oct.; 593(2):343-6 (1992)
11.  Fitzgerald, K., Lead (aluminum) and homocysteine levels in a series of individuals diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease:  (2014)
12.  Crouse, D.N.; Silica water the secret of blue zone longevity in the aluminum age; Etiological Publishing (2018) – Available from Amazon
13.  Sonner, Z., et al.; The microfluidics of the eccrine sweat glands, including biomarker partitioning, transport, and biosensing implications; Biomicrofluidics; 9(031301):1-19 (2015) for pH of sweat while exercising see page 10 section D on ammonia in sweat.
14.  Beardmore, J., et al.; What is the mechanism of formation of hydoxyaluminosilicates?; Scientific Reports; 6:30913 (2016)
15.  Crouse, D.N.; Prevent Alzheimer’s, autism, and stroke with 7 supplements, 7 lifestyle choices, and a dissolved mineral; Etiological Publishing (2016) – Available from Amazon

Sunday, November 18, 2018

Avoid Inhaling Neurotoxic Vapor from E-Cigarettes


Sales in the U.S. of electronic cigarettes (a.k.a. e-cigarettes) have more than doubled since 2014 to 3.6 billion dollars in 2018 with currently 4 to 6 million units being sold every year. Teens are now more likely to use e-cigarettes than cigarettes with 9.5% of 8th graders and 16.2% of 12 graders using e-cigarettes according to www.drugabuse.gov. In the U.S. new products are put on the market with only limited short-term safety testing and no long term testing on the health effects of chronic usage. In the case of e-cigarettes this results in primary and secondary exposure to aluminum vapor that may become a risk to mental health after years of chronic exposure. In this review what is known about aluminum vapor’s toxicity in aluminum welders and narcotics users who “chase the dragon” is applied to what is known about using aluminum containing Kanthal wire as a heated filament in e-cigarettes.     

Aluminum Neurotoxicity - Aluminum kills neurons and causes a variety of neurological problems including death. Aluminum accumulates over a period of years in areas of the brain resulting in aluminum hotspots. The olfactory bulb is both responsible for the sense of smell in the brain and is an aluminum hotspot1. If aluminum is ingested with food or drink it must cross the gut-blood-barrier and then cross the blood-brain-barrier in order to get inside the brain. Both of these barriers together exclude most of ingested aluminum from entering the brain unless there has been traumatic brain injury,

However, if aluminum is inhaled from the nose or mouth these two barriers are skipped as aluminum goes directly to the olfactory bulb of the brain by axonal transport from nasal passages2-5. Once in the olfactory bulb the aluminum finds its way into both the entorhinal and frontal cortexes and the hippocampus6 causing shrinkage of the brain and impaired memory7.  In addition, inhaled aluminum has been found in the myelin rich white matter region of the brain3. Shrinkage of the brain and damage of myelin due to inhaled aluminum is a likely cause of toxic leukoencephalopathy that can result in death. Therefore avoid inhaling aluminum by making the following lifestyle choices:

·         Avoid Inhaling Aluminum Vapor while Welding

·         Avoid “Chasing the Dragon”

·         Avoid e-cigarettes with Kanthal heater coils

Inhaling Aluminum through the Nose and Mouth

The human nose and mouth are connected by the retronasal passageway as diagrammed in the following figure. This passageway allows us to smell food in our mouth even with our nose plugged. Therefore any vapor that reaches our olfactory receptors either from inhaling ‘out-there’ orthonasally or ‘in-the-mouth’ retronasally can be axonally transported directly to the olfactory bulb of the brain by-passing the blood-brain-barrier. In other words inhaling e-cigarette vapor by either the nose or mouth exposes the olfactory receptors and olfactory bulb of the brain to vapors.  

 
 
Aluminum Welding – Welding aluminum in an inert atmosphere results in aluminum rich vapors that when inhaled cause high levels of aluminum in the urine and a decrease in cognitive and motor (i.e. muscular) performance.  This was confirmed with two studies one in Finland in 1996 and one in Sweden in 20008,9.  In both studies aluminum welders had much higher levels of aluminum in their urine than did steel welders. The welders in both studies were categorized into 3 sub-groups based upon urinary aluminum levels. Testing the welder’s cognition revealed a dose dependent correlation between urinary aluminum levels and declining cognitive performance.  Also analysis of electro-encephalography (EEG) testing revealed abnormalities only in the aluminum welders with a higher frequency of abnormalities in those aluminum welders with high levels of aluminum in their urine8,9. In addition, disturbed central nervous system driven motor (i.e. muscular) function was observed only in the aluminum welders with higher levels of aluminum in their urine8.

Aluminum tops the list of metals that cause oxidative damage to the brain with manganese being third on the list with less than half the oxidizing power of aluminum10. Vapor exposure to these metals is common when welding either aluminum alloys or steel and nickel alloys that contain manganese. Manganese has a vapor pressure of 1x10-5 bar at 955oC while aluminum has the same vapor pressure at 1,200oC11,12. Note that in aluminum containing alloys of iron, chromium, and aluminum, such as Kanthal and PM2000, all the aluminum is vaporized after 70 hours at 1,200oC in an oxygen and moisture rich atmosphere13.

No MRI has been reported of an aluminum welder’s brain. However, inhaled organo-aluminum compounds and aluminum ions and particles have been found to be axonally transported into the olfactory bulb and beyond into the hippocampus and white matter regions of the brain bypassing the protective blood-brain-barrier2-5.

Chronic exposure to levels of manganese in air greater than 5mcg/m3 can lead to a variety of psychiatric and motor (i.e. muscular) disturbances called manganism. Unlike aluminum, manganese can be detected by T1 weighted MRI scans of the brain. It has been shown by T1 weighted MRI scans that manganese accumulates in the olfactory bulb of the brain of steel alloy welders at much higher than normal levels14. In addition, it has been shown that both soluble manganese ions15-17 and insoluble manganese particles18 are transported along the olfactory nerve directly into the olfactory bulb and cortex and further into the brain (i.e. the amygdala) bypassing the protective blood-brain-barrier.

Therefore whenever welding aluminum alloys or manganese containing steel alloys always wear protective breathing gear or weld with just arms inside a fume hood with adequate ventilation for brain protection.

Chasing the Dragon – In order to avoid diseases transferred by using needles to inject narcotics, many users switched to inhaling narcotics. The most common method is called “chasing the dragon” which involves heating by flame from below the narcotic on a small piece of aluminum foil while inhaling the vapor with a straw19. Depending upon the heat produced by the flame some aluminum foil is burned, vaporized, and inhaled along with the narcotic. In those cases where the user’s brain was examined by CAT and MRI scans, voids were found in the myelin that makes up the white matter region of the brain due to a decreased number of neurons and oligodendrites20,21. Bilateral and symmetrical hyper-intensities in cerebral white matter and middle cerebellar peduncles were found using T2 weighted MRI20. The white matter in these brain regions has the appearance of Swiss cheese. The symptoms of this disease include mental deterioration, vison loss, speech disturbances, paralysis, and coma. This condition has been named both progressive and acute toxic leukoencephalopathy, multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and spongiform leukoencephalopathy.

Myelin is the preferential target of aluminum-mediated oxidative damage22. In 2008 the link between aluminum accumulation and progressive toxic leukoencephalopathy was reported in a 20 year old woman in whose brain aluminum deposits were found in the myelin sheath making up the white matter region of her brain after autopsy23. As in the cases of “chasing the dragon”, bilateral and symmetrical hyper-intensities in cerebral white matter and middle cerebellar peduncles were found using T2 weighted MRI scans23. In this women’s case the cause of aluminum accumulation was possibly due to a prior traumatic brain injury that made her blood-brain-barrier more permeable to aluminum but “chasing the dragon” was not ruled out23.

It has been suggested that acute toxic leukoencephalopathy can be clinically reversed by removing the casual toxin24. For instance, by both avoiding “chasing the dragon” and drinking OSA rich silica water could potentially reverse the disease and heal the brain by removing aluminum25. Drinking silica water has been shown to selectively remove aluminum from five lobes of the brain, including the olfactory bulb1. 

E-cigarettes with Kanthal Heating Coils - E-cigarettes (a.k.a. e-cigs) are handheld devices for vaporizing liquids (a.k.a. e-liquids) in order for the user to inhale the vapor.  Inside each e-cigarette are one or more coils of resistance wire (a.k.a. vape wire) that are heated either at constant temperature or constant wattage (i.e. constant power mode) with an internal battery. There are five different types of vape wires generally used: Kanthal (an iron-chromium-aluminum alloy), NiChrome (e.g. nickel-chromium alloy), stainless steel, nickel (e.g. nickel-manganese alloy), and titanium. The vape wire coils are filled with a wicking material (e.g. cotton, wool, silica, or rayon fibers) saturated with the e-liquid mixture primarily containing glycerol and/or propane-1,2-diol26. 

Kanthal vape wire has a stable resistance regardless of coil temperature and for this reason must be heated at a controlled wattage (i.e. power mode) not a controlled temperature27. Therefore the temperature of Kanthal vape wire coils will rise above normal in the absence of sufficient e-liquid being wicked to the coil. This is called getting “dry hits” during which the temperature of the vape wire rises to temperatures that allow aluminum to be vaporized more readily from Kanthal vape wire.

Nickel vape wire has a predictable change in resistance with temperature (i.e. temperature coefficient)27. Therefore nickel-manganese alloy vape wire coils, such as in the T3 eGo e-cigarette26, are heated at a controlled temperature by detecting the resistance in order to control the coil temperature. This keeps the coil temperature from rising higher than normal. Temperature control prevents manganese from being vaporized from nickel-manganese alloy vape wire. Only a very small amount (i.e. one nanogram) of manganese has been found in T3-eGo e-cigarette aerosol26.  

Kanthal alloy is the most popular vape wire as it is easy to work with, has good resistance to oxidation, it’s not springy so it holds shape, and it’s inexpensive. In addition it holds shape well when re-wicking. The main problems with Kanthal alloy are that it must be heated at constant wattage and not constant temperature and it contains 4% to 7% aluminum that is not thermally stable. When Kanthal wire was heated for 70 hours at 1,200oC all the aluminum is vaporized13.

There have been three studies that have found aluminum in e-cigarette aerosols but in two studies the vape wire was not Kanthal and in the third study the type of vape wire was undiscolosed26,28,29.  Heating Kanthal wire at a constant wattage (i.e. constant power) and not a constant temperature allows the temperature to rise significantly when the wick can’t supply e-liquid quick enough (i.e. “dry hit”). This is because the thermal conductivity of an e-liquid containing propane-1,2-diol and/or glycerol is more than ten times higher than moist air at 25oC (e.g. 0.20-0.29W/mK versus 0.018W/mK) 30-32. For brain health aluminum containing vape wire, such as Kanthal, should not be used for heater coils in e-cigarettes. Since there are many other safer vape wire choices, do not use e-cigarettes in power mode with Kanthal vape wire coils.

References

1.      Belles, M., et al.; Silicon reduces aluminum accumulation in rats: Relevance to the aluminum hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease; Alzheimer’s Disease Associated Disorders; 12(2):83-87 (1998)

2.      Sundreman, F.W. Jr.; Nasal toxicity, carcinogenicity, and olfactory uptake of metals; Annals Clin. Lab. Sci.; 31(1):3-24(2001)

3.      Zatta, P., et al.; Deposition of aluminum in brain tissues of rats exposed to inhalation of aluminum acetylacetonate; Neuroreport; Sept.; 4(9):119-22 (1993)

4.      Perl, D.P. and Good, P.F.; Uptake of aluminum into central nervous system along nasal-olfactory pathways; Lancet; May; 1(8540:1028 (1987)

5.      Divine, K.K., et al.; Quantitative particle-induced x-ray emission imaging of rat olfactory epithelium applied to the permeability of rat epithelium to inhaled aluminum; Chem. Res. Toxicol.; 12(7):575-81 (1999)

6.      Andrasi, E., et al.; Brain Al, Mg, and P contents of control and Alzheimer-diseased patients; J. Alzheimer’s Dis.; 7:273-84 (2005)

7.      Fjell, A.M., et al.; One-year brain atrophy evident in healthy aging; J. Neurosci.; Dec.; 29(48):15223-31 (2009)

8.      Sjogren, B., et al.; Effects on the nervous system among welders exposed to aluminum and manganese; Occup. Environ. Med.; 53:32-40 (1996)

9.      Riihimaki, V., et al.; Body burden of aluminum in relation to central nervous system function among metal inert-gas welders; Scand. J. Work Environ. Health; 26(2):118-130 (2000)

10.  Pogue, A.I., et al.; Metal-sulfate induced generation of ROS in human brain cells: detection using an isomeric mixture of 5- and 6-carboxy-2’,7’-dichlorofluoresein diacetate (carboxy-DCFDA) as a cell permeant tracer, Int. J. Mol.; 13:9615-26 (2012)



13.  Opila, E.J., et al.; Oxidation of high-temperature alloy wires in dry oxygen and water vapor; NASA Glenn Research Center; Cleveland, OH

14.  Sen, S., et al.; Manganese accumulation in the olfactory bulb and other brain  regions of “asymptomatic” welders; Toxicological Sci.; 121(1):160-67 (2011)

15.  Chuang, K.H., and Koretsky, A.; Improved neuronal tract tracing using manganese enhanced magnetic resonace imaging with fast T(1) mapping; Magn. Reson. Med.; Mar.; 55(3):604-11 (2006)

16.  Hendriksson, J., et al.; Transport of manganese via the olfactory pathway in rats: dosage dependent dependency of the uptake and subcellular distribution of the metal in the olfactory epithelium and the brain; Toxicol. Applied Pharmacol.; 156(2):119-128 (1999)

17.  Tjalve, H., et al.; Uptake of manganese and cadmium from the nasal mucosa into the central nervous system via olfactory pathways in rats; Pharmacol Toxicol.; Dec.; 79(6):347-56 (1996)

18.  Elder, A., et al.; Translocation of inhaled ultrafine manganese oxide particles to the central nervous system; Environ. Health Perspect.; Aug.; 114(8):1172-8 (2006)

19.   Buxton, J.A., et al.; Chasing the dragon – Characterizing cases of leukoencephalopathy associated with heroin inhalation in British Columbia; Harm Reduction Journal; 8(3):1-5 (2011)

20.  Liu, S. and Tanoura, T.; Heroin-associated spongiform leukoencephalopathy; Appl. Radiol.; Nov.; pp50-52 (2016)

21.  Singh, R., and Saini, M.; Toxic leukoencephalopathy after ‘chasing the dragon’; Singapore Med. J.; 56(6):e102-4 (2015)

22.  Verstraeten, S.V., et al.; Myelin is a preferential target of aluminum-mediated oxidative damage; Arch. Biochem. Biophys.; 344:289-94 (1997)

23.  Itoh, M., et al.; Progressive leukoencephalopathy associated with aluminum deposits in myelin sheath; J. Child Neurology; 23(8):938-43 (2008)

24.  McKinney, A.M., et al.; Acute toxic leukoencephalopathy: potential for reversibility clinically and on MRI with diffusion weighted and FLAIR imaging; July; Am. Roentgen Ray Soc.; AJR-193; 192-206 (2009)

25.   Crouse, D.N.; Silica water the secret of healthy blue zone longevity in the aluminum age; Available from Amazon (2018)

26.   Palazzolo, D.L.; Trace metals derived from electronic cigarette (ECIG) generated aerosol: Potential problem of ECIG devices that contain nickel; Jan.; Frontiers in Physiol.; 7(Article 663):1-17 (2017) Note: vape wire did not contain aluminum but did contain 9% manganese. 1.2mcg of aluminum and 0.001mcg of manganese were trapped from the aerosol. Source of aluminum is unknown but could be from a woven around the core.


28.  Williams, M., et al.; Metal and silicate particles including nanoparticles are present in electronic cigarette cartomizer fluid and aerosol; PLOSone; Mar.; 8(3)1-11 (2013) Note: vape wire did not contain aluminum or manganese. Source of aluminum containing particles is unknown but could be either aluminosilicate beads or aluminosilicate containing fiberglass.

29.  Farsalinos, K.E., et al.; Are metals emitted from electronic cigarettes a reason for health concern? A risk-assessment analysis of currently available literature; Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health; 12:5215-32 (2015) Note: EC13 produced more aluminum vapor than any other e-cigarette tested but like all others tested there was no mention of what vape wire it contained.

30.  Lasance, C.J.M.; The thermal conductivity of moist air; Design; Number 4. Technical Data, Test & Measurement; Vol. 9. Moist Air, Thermal Conductivity; Nov.; (2003)

31.   Daubert, T.E., et al.; Physical and thermodynamic properties of pure compounds: Data compilation; Taylor and Francis, Bristol, PA (1994)

32.   Marsh, K.N.; Recommended reference materials for realization of physiochemical properties; Blackwell Scientific Publications; Oxford (1987)