Neurons and Exercise

Neurons and Exercise

Wednesday, December 5, 2018

Saftey of Ingesting Zeolites


 To learn more about the neurotoxic effects of Aluminum on your body and how drinking Silica Rich Mineral Water is effective at removing aluminum from your body you can read my books.

https://www.amazon.com/Dennis-N.-Crouse-Ph.D./e/B01LFW4782


Safety of Clinoptilolite Zeolite Nanoparticles 

Drinking OSA rich silica water has been shown in scientific studies to facilitate the elimination of aluminum from the body and brain1-3.  Oral administration of nanoparticles of clinoptilolite zeolite has not been shown to facilitate elimination of aluminum in fact it has been shown that there is a net release of dissolved aluminum in simulated human gastric fluid4.
Simulated ingestion of larger particles of clinoptilolite zeolite has been shown to result in a net release of dissolved aluminum4 in spite of the proven ability of clinoptilolite zeolite to absorb aluminum5.  Dissolved aluminum causes the accumulation of aluminum in the brain6. This results in damage to neurons, since aluminum is neurotoxic and has been found to be a causal factor in autism, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease 7.  A higher than normal level of aluminum has been found in the brains of people with all of these conditions and diseases8-13.
It is known that zeolites in acid, such as hydrochloric that is found in the stomach, slowly dissolve releasing aluminum ions into solution14.  It is also known that in the presence of dicarboxylic acids (i.e. oxalic) or tricarboxylic acids (i.e. citric) that can be found in the stomach and upper GI tract, aluminum dissolution from zeolites is enhanced14.  In addition, the smaller the size of the zeolite particle (i.e. nanoparticles) the faster aluminum is dissolved from the zeolite14.  This is due to the very high surface area to weight ratio of nanoparticles and the short diffusion path within nanoparticles. Finally any free aluminum dissolved from zeolite can be absorbed in the upper GI tract and go into the blood and accumulate in the body and brain.
Large particles (45-75 micometer) of clinoptilolite zeolite were subjected to simulated gastric fluid made from 0.1M hydrochloric acid and 3.2 mg per milliliter of pepsin with pH adjustment with 0.1N sodium hydroxide to pH 2.0.  The concentration of zeolite was 3 grams per 100 milliliters. Controls were untreated clinoptilolite zeolite.  After 1 hour at 37oC the zeolite in each “gastric digested sample” and control was collected by centrifugation and freeze-dried.  Elemental analysis of the control and gastric digested zeolites revealed on average a 3.8% decrease in aluminum and a 1.3% decrease in silicon per gram of zeolite.  The researchers pointed out that this loss of material during gastric digestion “might be related to the possible dissolution process of aluminosilicates at the surface layer …”4. This is disturbing because a 1 nanometer sized particle has over 10,000 times more surface area than the large particles used in this study. Therefore it can be predicted that even more aluminum will be dissolved in the stomach after ingestion of nanoparticles.  In addition, even though clinoptilolite zeolites do remove some aluminum ions from solution5 there was a net release of dissolved aluminum during gastric digestion4.
Studies like this have recently convinced the FDA that clinoptilolite zeolites should not be generally regarded as safe (GRAS) when ingested in animal feed.  In a May 4th 2018 letter from Dr. David Edwards, the Director of the Division of Animal Feeds for the FDA, to a producer of animal feed containing clinoptilolite zeolites, Dr. Edwards said their animal feeds are not GRAS because the use of clinoptilolite zeolites in animal feed “… could cause potential excess levels of aluminum … in some species”15.  
Before anyone can say that zeolites are safe for human ingestion they must test the zeolite for release of dissolved aluminum at the pH of the stomach and upper GI tract for a time period that reflects the zeolite’s residence time in these regions of the body.  This work should include added acidification with di and tri carboxylic acids occasionally found in the stomach and upper GI tract. Until this work is peer reviewed and published in a scientific journal, use of zeolites, such as clinoptilolite zeolite nanoparticles, should not be recommended. 
References

1.      Belles, M., et al.; Silicon reduces aluminum accumulation in rats: Relevance to the aluminum hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease; Alzheimer Disease Associated Disorders; 12(2):83-87 (1998)
2.      Davenward, S., et al.; Silicon-rich mineral water as a non-invasive test of the ‘aluminum hypothesis’ in Alzheimer’s disease; J. Alzheimer’s Dis.; 33(2):423-30 (2013)
3.      Minshal, C., et al.; Aluminum in human sweat; J. Trace elem. Med. Biol.; 28:87-88 (2014)
4.      Kavak, D.D., et al.; Investigation of structural properties of clinoptilolite rich zeolites in simulated digestive conditions and their cytotoxicity against Caco-2 cells in vitro; J. Porous Materials; April, 1-8 (2012)
5.      Sirotiak, M., et al.; Sorption kinetics of selected heavy metals adsorption to natural and Fe(III) modified zeolite tuff containing clinoptilolite mineral; Research Paper – Slovak University of Technology; Bratislava; 23(36):41-7 (2015)
6.      Domingo, L., et al.; Age related effects of aluminum ingestion on brain aluminum accumulation and behavior in rats; Life Sci.; 58(17):1387-95 (1996)
7.      Crouse, D.N.; Silica water the secret of healthy blue zone longevity in the aluminum age; Etiological Pub.; (2018)
8.      Mold, M., et al.; Aluminum in brain tissue in autism; J. Trace Elements in Med. Biol.; March; 46:76-82 (2018)
9.      Mirza, A., et al.; Aluminum in brain tissue in familial Alzheimer’s disease; J. Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology; Mar.; 40:30-36 (2017)
10.  Andrasi, E., et al.; Brain Al, Mg, and P contents of control and Alzheimer-diseased patients; J. Alzheimer’s Dis.; 7:273-84 (2005)
11.  Mold, M., et al.; Aluminium in brain tissue in multiple sclerosis; Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health; 15(8):1777 (2018) Including supplementary material p1-6 (2018)
12.  Hirsch, E.C., et al.; Iron and aluminum increase in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson’s disease: an X-ray microanalysis; J. Neurochem.; Feb.; 56(2):446-51 (1991)
13.  Good, P.F., et al.; Neuromelanin-containing neurons of the substantia nigra accumulate iron and aluminum in Parkinson’s disease: a LAMMA study; Oct.; 593(2):343-6 (1992)
14.  Van Donk, S., et al.; Generation, characterization, and impact of mesopores in zeolite catalysts; Catalysis Rev.; Mesopores in Zeolite Catalysts; Marcel Dekker; New York, NY; Jan.; 297-319 (2003)
15.   Edwards, D.; FDA U.S. Food & Drug Admin.; Re: GRAS Notice No. AGRN 25; Letter to Thomas Bergen, V.P.; G-Sciences; May 4 (2018)

Sunday, November 18, 2018

Avoid Inhaling Neurotoxic Vapor from E-Cigarettes


Sales in the U.S. of electronic cigarettes (a.k.a. e-cigarettes) have more than doubled since 2014 to 3.6 billion dollars in 2018 with currently 4 to 6 million units being sold every year. Teens are now more likely to use e-cigarettes than cigarettes with 9.5% of 8th graders and 16.2% of 12 graders using e-cigarettes according to www.drugabuse.gov. In the U.S. new products are put on the market with only limited short-term safety testing and no long term testing on the health effects of chronic usage. In the case of e-cigarettes this results in primary and secondary exposure to aluminum vapor that may become a risk to mental health after years of chronic exposure. In this review what is known about aluminum vapor’s toxicity in aluminum welders and narcotics users who “chase the dragon” is applied to what is known about using aluminum containing Kanthal wire as a heated filament in e-cigarettes.     

Aluminum Neurotoxicity - Aluminum kills neurons and causes a variety of neurological problems including death. Aluminum accumulates over a period of years in areas of the brain resulting in aluminum hotspots. The olfactory bulb is both responsible for the sense of smell in the brain and is an aluminum hotspot1. If aluminum is ingested with food or drink it must cross the gut-blood-barrier and then cross the blood-brain-barrier in order to get inside the brain. Both of these barriers together exclude most of ingested aluminum from entering the brain unless there has been traumatic brain injury,

However, if aluminum is inhaled from the nose or mouth these two barriers are skipped as aluminum goes directly to the olfactory bulb of the brain by axonal transport from nasal passages2-5. Once in the olfactory bulb the aluminum finds its way into both the entorhinal and frontal cortexes and the hippocampus6 causing shrinkage of the brain and impaired memory7.  In addition, inhaled aluminum has been found in the myelin rich white matter region of the brain3. Shrinkage of the brain and damage of myelin due to inhaled aluminum is a likely cause of toxic leukoencephalopathy that can result in death. Therefore avoid inhaling aluminum by making the following lifestyle choices:

·         Avoid Inhaling Aluminum Vapor while Welding

·         Avoid “Chasing the Dragon”

·         Avoid e-cigarettes with Kanthal heater coils

Inhaling Aluminum through the Nose and Mouth

The human nose and mouth are connected by the retronasal passageway as diagrammed in the following figure. This passageway allows us to smell food in our mouth even with our nose plugged. Therefore any vapor that reaches our olfactory receptors either from inhaling ‘out-there’ orthonasally or ‘in-the-mouth’ retronasally can be axonally transported directly to the olfactory bulb of the brain by-passing the blood-brain-barrier. In other words inhaling e-cigarette vapor by either the nose or mouth exposes the olfactory receptors and olfactory bulb of the brain to vapors.  

 
 
Aluminum Welding – Welding aluminum in an inert atmosphere results in aluminum rich vapors that when inhaled cause high levels of aluminum in the urine and a decrease in cognitive and motor (i.e. muscular) performance.  This was confirmed with two studies one in Finland in 1996 and one in Sweden in 20008,9.  In both studies aluminum welders had much higher levels of aluminum in their urine than did steel welders. The welders in both studies were categorized into 3 sub-groups based upon urinary aluminum levels. Testing the welder’s cognition revealed a dose dependent correlation between urinary aluminum levels and declining cognitive performance.  Also analysis of electro-encephalography (EEG) testing revealed abnormalities only in the aluminum welders with a higher frequency of abnormalities in those aluminum welders with high levels of aluminum in their urine8,9. In addition, disturbed central nervous system driven motor (i.e. muscular) function was observed only in the aluminum welders with higher levels of aluminum in their urine8.

Aluminum tops the list of metals that cause oxidative damage to the brain with manganese being third on the list with less than half the oxidizing power of aluminum10. Vapor exposure to these metals is common when welding either aluminum alloys or steel and nickel alloys that contain manganese. Manganese has a vapor pressure of 1x10-5 bar at 955oC while aluminum has the same vapor pressure at 1,200oC11,12. Note that in aluminum containing alloys of iron, chromium, and aluminum, such as Kanthal and PM2000, all the aluminum is vaporized after 70 hours at 1,200oC in an oxygen and moisture rich atmosphere13.

No MRI has been reported of an aluminum welder’s brain. However, inhaled organo-aluminum compounds and aluminum ions and particles have been found to be axonally transported into the olfactory bulb and beyond into the hippocampus and white matter regions of the brain bypassing the protective blood-brain-barrier2-5.

Chronic exposure to levels of manganese in air greater than 5mcg/m3 can lead to a variety of psychiatric and motor (i.e. muscular) disturbances called manganism. Unlike aluminum, manganese can be detected by T1 weighted MRI scans of the brain. It has been shown by T1 weighted MRI scans that manganese accumulates in the olfactory bulb of the brain of steel alloy welders at much higher than normal levels14. In addition, it has been shown that both soluble manganese ions15-17 and insoluble manganese particles18 are transported along the olfactory nerve directly into the olfactory bulb and cortex and further into the brain (i.e. the amygdala) bypassing the protective blood-brain-barrier.

Therefore whenever welding aluminum alloys or manganese containing steel alloys always wear protective breathing gear or weld with just arms inside a fume hood with adequate ventilation for brain protection.

Chasing the Dragon – In order to avoid diseases transferred by using needles to inject narcotics, many users switched to inhaling narcotics. The most common method is called “chasing the dragon” which involves heating by flame from below the narcotic on a small piece of aluminum foil while inhaling the vapor with a straw19. Depending upon the heat produced by the flame some aluminum foil is burned, vaporized, and inhaled along with the narcotic. In those cases where the user’s brain was examined by CAT and MRI scans, voids were found in the myelin that makes up the white matter region of the brain due to a decreased number of neurons and oligodendrites20,21. Bilateral and symmetrical hyper-intensities in cerebral white matter and middle cerebellar peduncles were found using T2 weighted MRI20. The white matter in these brain regions has the appearance of Swiss cheese. The symptoms of this disease include mental deterioration, vison loss, speech disturbances, paralysis, and coma. This condition has been named both progressive and acute toxic leukoencephalopathy, multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and spongiform leukoencephalopathy.

Myelin is the preferential target of aluminum-mediated oxidative damage22. In 2008 the link between aluminum accumulation and progressive toxic leukoencephalopathy was reported in a 20 year old woman in whose brain aluminum deposits were found in the myelin sheath making up the white matter region of her brain after autopsy23. As in the cases of “chasing the dragon”, bilateral and symmetrical hyper-intensities in cerebral white matter and middle cerebellar peduncles were found using T2 weighted MRI scans23. In this women’s case the cause of aluminum accumulation was possibly due to a prior traumatic brain injury that made her blood-brain-barrier more permeable to aluminum but “chasing the dragon” was not ruled out23.

It has been suggested that acute toxic leukoencephalopathy can be clinically reversed by removing the casual toxin24. For instance, by both avoiding “chasing the dragon” and drinking OSA rich silica water could potentially reverse the disease and heal the brain by removing aluminum25. Drinking silica water has been shown to selectively remove aluminum from five lobes of the brain, including the olfactory bulb1. 

E-cigarettes with Kanthal Heating Coils - E-cigarettes (a.k.a. e-cigs) are handheld devices for vaporizing liquids (a.k.a. e-liquids) in order for the user to inhale the vapor.  Inside each e-cigarette are one or more coils of resistance wire (a.k.a. vape wire) that are heated either at constant temperature or constant wattage (i.e. constant power mode) with an internal battery. There are five different types of vape wires generally used: Kanthal (an iron-chromium-aluminum alloy), NiChrome (e.g. nickel-chromium alloy), stainless steel, nickel (e.g. nickel-manganese alloy), and titanium. The vape wire coils are filled with a wicking material (e.g. cotton, wool, silica, or rayon fibers) saturated with the e-liquid mixture primarily containing glycerol and/or propane-1,2-diol26. 

Kanthal vape wire has a stable resistance regardless of coil temperature and for this reason must be heated at a controlled wattage (i.e. power mode) not a controlled temperature27. Therefore the temperature of Kanthal vape wire coils will rise above normal in the absence of sufficient e-liquid being wicked to the coil. This is called getting “dry hits” during which the temperature of the vape wire rises to temperatures that allow aluminum to be vaporized more readily from Kanthal vape wire.

Nickel vape wire has a predictable change in resistance with temperature (i.e. temperature coefficient)27. Therefore nickel-manganese alloy vape wire coils, such as in the T3 eGo e-cigarette26, are heated at a controlled temperature by detecting the resistance in order to control the coil temperature. This keeps the coil temperature from rising higher than normal. Temperature control prevents manganese from being vaporized from nickel-manganese alloy vape wire. Only a very small amount (i.e. one nanogram) of manganese has been found in T3-eGo e-cigarette aerosol26.  

Kanthal alloy is the most popular vape wire as it is easy to work with, has good resistance to oxidation, it’s not springy so it holds shape, and it’s inexpensive. In addition it holds shape well when re-wicking. The main problems with Kanthal alloy are that it must be heated at constant wattage and not constant temperature and it contains 4% to 7% aluminum that is not thermally stable. When Kanthal wire was heated for 70 hours at 1,200oC all the aluminum is vaporized13.

There have been three studies that have found aluminum in e-cigarette aerosols but in two studies the vape wire was not Kanthal and in the third study the type of vape wire was undiscolosed26,28,29.  Heating Kanthal wire at a constant wattage (i.e. constant power) and not a constant temperature allows the temperature to rise significantly when the wick can’t supply e-liquid quick enough (i.e. “dry hit”). This is because the thermal conductivity of an e-liquid containing propane-1,2-diol and/or glycerol is more than ten times higher than moist air at 25oC (e.g. 0.20-0.29W/mK versus 0.018W/mK) 30-32. For brain health aluminum containing vape wire, such as Kanthal, should not be used for heater coils in e-cigarettes. Since there are many other safer vape wire choices, do not use e-cigarettes in power mode with Kanthal vape wire coils.

References

1.      Belles, M., et al.; Silicon reduces aluminum accumulation in rats: Relevance to the aluminum hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease; Alzheimer’s Disease Associated Disorders; 12(2):83-87 (1998)

2.      Sundreman, F.W. Jr.; Nasal toxicity, carcinogenicity, and olfactory uptake of metals; Annals Clin. Lab. Sci.; 31(1):3-24(2001)

3.      Zatta, P., et al.; Deposition of aluminum in brain tissues of rats exposed to inhalation of aluminum acetylacetonate; Neuroreport; Sept.; 4(9):119-22 (1993)

4.      Perl, D.P. and Good, P.F.; Uptake of aluminum into central nervous system along nasal-olfactory pathways; Lancet; May; 1(8540:1028 (1987)

5.      Divine, K.K., et al.; Quantitative particle-induced x-ray emission imaging of rat olfactory epithelium applied to the permeability of rat epithelium to inhaled aluminum; Chem. Res. Toxicol.; 12(7):575-81 (1999)

6.      Andrasi, E., et al.; Brain Al, Mg, and P contents of control and Alzheimer-diseased patients; J. Alzheimer’s Dis.; 7:273-84 (2005)

7.      Fjell, A.M., et al.; One-year brain atrophy evident in healthy aging; J. Neurosci.; Dec.; 29(48):15223-31 (2009)

8.      Sjogren, B., et al.; Effects on the nervous system among welders exposed to aluminum and manganese; Occup. Environ. Med.; 53:32-40 (1996)

9.      Riihimaki, V., et al.; Body burden of aluminum in relation to central nervous system function among metal inert-gas welders; Scand. J. Work Environ. Health; 26(2):118-130 (2000)

10.  Pogue, A.I., et al.; Metal-sulfate induced generation of ROS in human brain cells: detection using an isomeric mixture of 5- and 6-carboxy-2’,7’-dichlorofluoresein diacetate (carboxy-DCFDA) as a cell permeant tracer, Int. J. Mol.; 13:9615-26 (2012)



13.  Opila, E.J., et al.; Oxidation of high-temperature alloy wires in dry oxygen and water vapor; NASA Glenn Research Center; Cleveland, OH

14.  Sen, S., et al.; Manganese accumulation in the olfactory bulb and other brain  regions of “asymptomatic” welders; Toxicological Sci.; 121(1):160-67 (2011)

15.  Chuang, K.H., and Koretsky, A.; Improved neuronal tract tracing using manganese enhanced magnetic resonace imaging with fast T(1) mapping; Magn. Reson. Med.; Mar.; 55(3):604-11 (2006)

16.  Hendriksson, J., et al.; Transport of manganese via the olfactory pathway in rats: dosage dependent dependency of the uptake and subcellular distribution of the metal in the olfactory epithelium and the brain; Toxicol. Applied Pharmacol.; 156(2):119-128 (1999)

17.  Tjalve, H., et al.; Uptake of manganese and cadmium from the nasal mucosa into the central nervous system via olfactory pathways in rats; Pharmacol Toxicol.; Dec.; 79(6):347-56 (1996)

18.  Elder, A., et al.; Translocation of inhaled ultrafine manganese oxide particles to the central nervous system; Environ. Health Perspect.; Aug.; 114(8):1172-8 (2006)

19.   Buxton, J.A., et al.; Chasing the dragon – Characterizing cases of leukoencephalopathy associated with heroin inhalation in British Columbia; Harm Reduction Journal; 8(3):1-5 (2011)

20.  Liu, S. and Tanoura, T.; Heroin-associated spongiform leukoencephalopathy; Appl. Radiol.; Nov.; pp50-52 (2016)

21.  Singh, R., and Saini, M.; Toxic leukoencephalopathy after ‘chasing the dragon’; Singapore Med. J.; 56(6):e102-4 (2015)

22.  Verstraeten, S.V., et al.; Myelin is a preferential target of aluminum-mediated oxidative damage; Arch. Biochem. Biophys.; 344:289-94 (1997)

23.  Itoh, M., et al.; Progressive leukoencephalopathy associated with aluminum deposits in myelin sheath; J. Child Neurology; 23(8):938-43 (2008)

24.  McKinney, A.M., et al.; Acute toxic leukoencephalopathy: potential for reversibility clinically and on MRI with diffusion weighted and FLAIR imaging; July; Am. Roentgen Ray Soc.; AJR-193; 192-206 (2009)

25.   Crouse, D.N.; Silica water the secret of healthy blue zone longevity in the aluminum age; Available from Amazon (2018)

26.   Palazzolo, D.L.; Trace metals derived from electronic cigarette (ECIG) generated aerosol: Potential problem of ECIG devices that contain nickel; Jan.; Frontiers in Physiol.; 7(Article 663):1-17 (2017) Note: vape wire did not contain aluminum but did contain 9% manganese. 1.2mcg of aluminum and 0.001mcg of manganese were trapped from the aerosol. Source of aluminum is unknown but could be from a woven around the core.


28.  Williams, M., et al.; Metal and silicate particles including nanoparticles are present in electronic cigarette cartomizer fluid and aerosol; PLOSone; Mar.; 8(3)1-11 (2013) Note: vape wire did not contain aluminum or manganese. Source of aluminum containing particles is unknown but could be either aluminosilicate beads or aluminosilicate containing fiberglass.

29.  Farsalinos, K.E., et al.; Are metals emitted from electronic cigarettes a reason for health concern? A risk-assessment analysis of currently available literature; Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health; 12:5215-32 (2015) Note: EC13 produced more aluminum vapor than any other e-cigarette tested but like all others tested there was no mention of what vape wire it contained.

30.  Lasance, C.J.M.; The thermal conductivity of moist air; Design; Number 4. Technical Data, Test & Measurement; Vol. 9. Moist Air, Thermal Conductivity; Nov.; (2003)

31.   Daubert, T.E., et al.; Physical and thermodynamic properties of pure compounds: Data compilation; Taylor and Francis, Bristol, PA (1994)

32.   Marsh, K.N.; Recommended reference materials for realization of physiochemical properties; Blackwell Scientific Publications; Oxford (1987)    

Monday, October 15, 2018

AFM, TM and MS (Sudden Onset Weak Limb Syndrome) - scientific evidence for an environmental toxin being a causal factor


Sudden Onset Weak Limb Syndrome 

Sudden weak limb syndrome (SOWLS) is a disease of children and young adults. There are several types of SOWLS depending upon symptoms in addition to weak arm(s) and/or leg(s):
·         Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) – loss of muscle tone and decreased or absent reflexes 
·         Transverse myelitis (TM) – neurological dysfunction on both sides of the spinal cord causing numbness and weakness of the limbs and deficits in sensory and motor skills 
·         Multiple sclerosis (MS) – Blurred vision and either recurring attacks or progressive symptoms including physical, mental, and sometimes psychiatric problems
These diseases are idiopathic as they seem to arise spontaneously and their etiology (i.e. cause) is unknown. Finding the etiology of SOWLS is important because only by finding the cause can we find effective treatments and a cure. Based upon recent research the etiology of SOWLS involves peripheral nerve injury, such as caused by cuts, injections, or vaccinations, enhancing the transport of neurotoxic aluminum and enteroviruses to the soma of neurons causing SOWLS. This is explained in more detail in the following three paragraphs:
Increased Aluminum Transport after Peripheral Nerve Injury: After peripheral nerve injury there is increased transport inside neurons of specific molecules from the site of injury to the portion of the neuron that contains the nucleus (a.k.a. soma)1-3. This is called retrograde axonal transport that moves molecules at a rate of 10 to 20cm per day. One of the large molecules (i.e. proteins) that are transported in this manner in both sensory and motor neurons is transferrin4,5.  Transferrin is an iron transporter that also transports aluminum6.  Aluminum is a known neurotoxin that damages neurons in the central nervous system and accumulates in the brain7. Retrograde axonal transport of aluminum from a site of peripheral nerve injury in a limb to the somas of injured neurons is a likely causal factor of SOWLS.



Enterovirus Transport after Peripheral Nerve Injury - Mice inoculated intravenously with poliovirus do not always get poliomyelitis. However, it has been shown that repeated injections of just phosphate buffered saline results in injury-provoked paralytic poliomyelitis or provocation poliomyelitis in mice previously inoculated intravenously with poliovirus8. It was also shown that after peripheral nerve injury the poliovirus is transported by retrograde axonal transport from the periphery to the soma of neurons accounting for facilitated access of poliovirus to the central nervous system10. Provocation poliomyelitis has also been reported in chidren after inoculation with the aluminum containing DTaP vaccine9,10.  During the first month after inoculation a relationship was shown to exist between the site of injection and the site of paralysis10.
Cases of Enterovirus Associated with AFM - In 2018 the Children’s Hospital of Colorado reported 13 children with central nervous system infection. Three of these children were diagnosed with AFM. The 13 children were aged 3 months to 35 months and tested positive for the polio-like enterovirus EV-A71 and in one case EV-A71 was identified in the central nervous system13. In 2014 the CDC reported 88 cases of AFM in 38 states. Of these 88 cases 15 cases tested positive for the polio-like enterovirus EV-D68 but no enteroviruses were detected in the central nervous systems of any of these children12. Enterovirus transport may be a causal factor in AFM.
Increased Aluminum Accumulation due to Enterovirus Infection - The most important pathway for iron accumulation in the brain is via the transferrin iron transporter13. Transferrin is known to also transport aluminum6. Retrograde axonal transport of transferrin is enhanced after a peripheral nerve injury, such as a vaccination1,2,4. If there is a simultaneous enterovirus infection, such as EV-A71 or EV-D68, there may be enhanced aluminum accumulation in the central nervous system. It has been shown that iron accumulation increases in the brains of mice infected with enteroviruses14. Although these mice brains were not checked for aluminum, it is likely that entrovirus infection also results in increased aluminum accumulation.  



Sources of Aluminum – Aluminum has four routes of entry into the body:
·         Vaccinations
·         Ingestion
·         Inhalation
·         Dermal
In order to attack the central nervous system aluminum must either cross the blood-brain-barrier or be transported from a peripheral nerve through a neuronal pathway to the brain. Aluminum is an adjuvant that is added to most vaccines given to children and young adults. It has been found that the aluminum adjuvant is slowly released from the vaccination site into the blood and brain15. For children the major sources of aluminum are vaccines, baby formula, food colorants, used in colored candy and frostings, and baking powder used in pancakes, waffles, and baked goods16. For adults the major sources of aluminum are ingestion of variety of processed foods, cookware, coffee makers, cosmetics, antiperspirants, and inhalation of tobacco smoke and aluminum vapor from vaping devices16. 
Variation in Aluminum Absorption and Accumulation - There is a wide variation in aluminum absorption and accumulation among children and young adults17-18. For instance, compared to those without MS, people with relapsing-remitting MS have 7-fold more aluminum and people with secondary progressive MS have 2.6-fold more aluminum in their urine on average19. Also people with MS have much higher than normal concentrations of accumulated aluminum in their brains20. Silica-rich drinking water has been shown to increase aluminum excretion in the urine by 2.5-fold in those with MS21.      

The following is an excerpt from a book I have written entitled “Silica Water the Secret of Healthy Blue Zone Longevity in the Aluminum Age”:
_____________________________________________________________________________

The human papilloma vaccine (a.k.a. HPV, Gardasil) contains aluminum as an adjuvant and is given as a series of vaccinations to children and young adults aged 9 to 44.  The HPV vaccine is primarily given to people at an age when they have the highest risk of MS.

In 2018 in Miami, Florida two teens, one male and one female, who were 14 and 17 years of age experienced symptoms of MS within 1 to 2 weeks of vaccination with HPV vaccine22. They both were diagnosed with optic neuritis and had symptoms of blurred vision and in one case numbness and weakness in the legs. Oliogoclonal bands (i.e. bands of immunoglobulins) were found in their cerebrospinal fluid but not their blood serum indicating inflammation of the central nervous system that is indicative of MS. Both teens experienced a relapse of symptoms within 2 months of initial symptoms and were both diagnosed with relapsing–remitting MS22. 

MS is a disease with “obscure symptoms” 22. Therefore MS may fail to be correctly diagnosed in all cases. In the following anecdotal information we may have an example of undiagnosed relapsing-remitting MS. This was possibly due to both childhood vaccinations with aluminum containing vaccines and a diet of aluminum containing junk food and healed by drinking silica water and avoiding junk food:
“My son has always been healthy, and I cannot remember a time where he has needed to go to the doctor in all of his 10 years.  But at age 10 he went from healthy to wheelchair bound in the space of 6 months. First he had blurred vision and I noticed he was walking too close to walls and hedges, almost walking into them.  Then he had chronic weakness in his legs and would fall over, unable to move his legs. He was tested and they found nothing wrong, believing it must be a mental problem. After all these tests he remained undiagnosed, untreated, and continued to deteriorate physically and mentally. I researched and followed Chris Exley's advice, giving my son Volvic silica water each day. We noticed a difference within 3 days, he was out of the wheelchair within 10 days, and doing PE and gymnastics at school in 45 days. A relapse of symptoms happened recently. Unfortunately when my son strays off the healthy food and eats junk food over a certain amount of time, his symptoms reappear. Doctors don't want to admit that they failed and a daily bottle of silica water cured him. He has been on Volvic water since November 2016. This is something we will do for as long as we can. It is not a quick fix and needs to be a lifestyle change. Sorry to say it, the health system failed us, but Prof Exley's research saved our son. It sounds too simple to be true, but it worked unquestionably for us.”  August 2018 
Note that the symptoms in this anecdotal case (i.e. blurred vision, weakness in the legs, relapse of symptoms) are identical to those observed recently in Florida after HPV vaccination. These are likely examples of aluminum in vaccines and/or aluminum in junk food (i.e. colored candy, colored frosting, donuts, cookies, cupcakes, etc.) triggering MS or a relapse of MS symptoms. _____________________________________________________________________________
Aluminum has been linked to MS as a likely causal factor. For complete details and references to the scientific literature please see my book “Silica Water the Secret of Blue Zone Longevity in the Aluminum Age.”  Based upon current research data aluminum may be also linked to AFM as a likely causal factor. 
Silica water, such as Volvic, Starkey, Fiji and synthetic silica water, such as homemade Silicade, have been proven to remove accumulated aluminum from the brain and other organs of the body23,24 and should be considered as potential treatment for SOWLS.
 

A safe strategy for OSA supplementation is to start with 1 cup a day for adults or ½ cup a day for children and work up to drinking 3 to 4 cups over a 9 to 12 hour period during the day of either silica rich mineral water or homemade Silicade (see Appendix I and Chapter 6).  Mothers should drink OSA rich water prior to pregnancy and, if there are no side effects, continue drinking OSA rich water during pregnancy and while breast feeding.
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