Neurons and Exercise

Neurons and Exercise

Thursday, October 18, 2018

Seizures, Aluminum and Silica Water


Here is an excerpt from my book  'Silica Water the Secret of Healthy Blue Zone Longevity in the Aluminum Age'  The book is available on Amazon.  

https://www.amazon.com/Silica-Secret-Healthy-Longevity-Aluminum/dp/1727336747/ref=sr_1_2?keywords=dennis+n+crouse&qid=1582750399&sr=8-2 
My wife Laurie is a member of a facebook page where parents have been giving their children silica water which in some cases is eliminating seizures or reducing seizures. This information is included in this write up. 

Seizures


Epilepsy is a condition in which seizures occur on a repeated basis. Seizures occur in the brain when too many nerve cells “fire” too quickly creating what has been referred to as an “electrical storm”. There are over 40 different types of seizures. Symptoms can either include convulsions, such as in tonic-clonic (a.k.a. grand mal) seizures, or no convulsions, such as in absence (a.k.a. petit mal) seizures. Other symptoms of seizures include: confusion, fainting, blackouts, blank staring, sudden and unexplained falls, episodes of blinking and chewing at inappropriate times.
The highest incidence rates of epilepsy have been reported in both the very young, particularly in the first few years of life, and the very old402. Currently the worldwide annual incidence rate of epilepsy is 68 per 100,000 people and in the U.S.A. the annual incidence rate is 35.5-38.6 per 100,000 people(403). The Epilepsy Foundation estimates there are 326,000 children in the U.S.A. who have been diagnosed with epilepsy making it the 4th most prevalent neurological disease. Epilepsy not only lowers the quality of life of those who suffer its symptoms but also has a negative impact on their longevity. Two recent studies in Nova Scotia and the Netherlands have found that children with epilepsy are 5 to 9 times more likely to die than healthy children(404,405).
It is well known that aluminum causes seizures in monkeys. In 1954 it was reported that three months after aluminum hydroxide is injected in the brains of rhesus (macaca mulatta) monkeys, chronic epileptic seizures are observed in the monkeys that by EEG correlate with those in humans(406). In 1978 chronic temporal lobe seizures were induced in 11 monkeys with bilateral implantation of aluminum hydroxide in their hippocampi (407). The hippocampus is a known hotspot for aluminum accumulation in humans(266). In 1982 chronic absence seizures (a.k.a. petit mal epilepsy) were induced in juvenile rhesus monkeys with bilateral implantation of aluminum hydroxide in their thalami408. Aluminum induced chronic epileptic seizures in monkeys have been shown to spontaneously continue for at least 7 years(409).
It is also well known that aluminum causes seizures in humans. Aluminum encephalopathy is a neurological condition due to aluminum accumulation in the brain usually occurring in humans undergoing regular dialysis treatment(410). Epileptic seizures are observed in 57% of those diagnosed with aluminum encephalopathy(411). Dialysis-associated seizures were seen in 7.2% of 180 children and adolescents on regular dialysis treatment410. Seizures have also been observed after 6 months of occupational exposure to aluminum and 36 to 42 days after the use of aluminum containing bone cement during brain surgery(413,414). Serum aluminum concentration is normally less than 1mcg/L but in the cases of exposure to aluminum containing bone cement it was 4.4 to 4.3mcg/L(413,414). High serum aluminum levels are a predisposing condition for epileptic seizures(476). A person who drank water containing high levels of aluminum sulfate developed late-onset epilepsy and died of asphyxiation associated with an epileptic fit. Autopsy and analysis of their hippocampus revealed very high levels of aluminum (4.35 mcg/g dry weight)477.
It has been reported that regular treatment with an aluminum chelator (e.g. DFO a.k.a. desferoxamine) concomitantly lowered serum aluminum levels and abolished epileptic seizures478. Does supplemental OSA stop seizures by removing accumulated aluminum from the body? This question has been answered recently by a group of parents of children with seizures who had their children drink OSA rich silica water. The following anecdotal data from Facebook strongly suggests that routine OSA supplementation can in some cases stop seizures in children:
1. “We started drinking Fiji water in January. It is now July and my child has been myoclonic jerk free since February. Honestly didn’t think Fiji water was a factor so we stopped Fiji for two weeks just to see. Some jerks returned so we started it back up and so far none. We are sticking with Fiji”. July 2018
2. “I have a similar story to yours. My 5 year old is still seizure free after starting on Fiji water. The last seizure was in November. I am not going to lie - sometimes I think it is not really the Fiji water? But seriously there is no other explanation!” July 2018
3. “We have been free from seizures for 11 months all from Fiji water.” Sept. 2018
4. “We have been seizure free since March. Been using only Fiji since for all water intake.” September 2018
5. “My son was on Fiji water for three weeks before we didn’t see any more seizures. When we make ice tea or fresh lemonade, we only use Fiji water. Also, I dilute his juices with Fiji water. There have been times where he’s gone 1-2 days without drinking Fiji water. He’s been seizure free for one year now. I haven’t even mentioned it to the doctor that it was after drinking Fiji water. I just don’t want to hear how it is impossible that water can do such thing.” September 2018
6. “My son is one month seizure free and 2 months since last seizure clusters. He has been on Fiji water for 2 months. I can’t express how grateful I am for the Fiji water. It’s amazing. My son has been having seizures for almost 10 years. For last 8 years, he had been having 10-20 seizures a month.” September 2018
7. “We are going on 5 months of using Fiji water and have seen changes in frequency of my son’s seizures from weekly to every 5 weeks. We are quite happy with the results as this has worked better than the different medicines we have tried.” August 2018
8. “My daughter is 6 months seizure free today! She has never reached the six month mark before, so it’s a pretty big deal. She has had no med changes but we switched her to Fiji water exclusively. Maybe it’s coincidence, but maybe not!” – Oct. 2018
9. “My son has Dravet syndrome. We made a 100% switch to Fiji water. Things may have picked up a bit at first (not really sure since he was having so many every day). He went seizure free on day 9 and was for 30 days. After that the daily drops came back but not as frequent or as strong. Before Fiji he was falling on his face over 25 times every day. Since starting Fiji he hasn’t hit the ground since. He went over a year on Fiji and never hit the ground.” - Jan. 2019
10. “My granddaughter has stubborn infantile spasms as well and was also on ketosis when her mom put her on Fiji. The Fiji helped her go from hundreds a day to just a few. It was incredible!” - Dec. 2019
11. “We just got back from a trip to Mexico with our family. My son has epilepsy that is mostly resistant to meds. My son had a seizure the night before we left to Mexico. The resort we stayed at had strictly Fiji water! So we all were only drinking it. As I think back to the 12 day trip, he was swimming all day and definitely some later nights (seizure triggers being tired) but he did not have a seizure the whole time! Now was it a coincidence or was it the water!? I definitely won’t be stopping the Fiji water anytime soon!” – Jan. 2020
12. “My daughter has autism and epilepsy and since starting her on Fiji water I have seen a big improvement with her. Not one seizure even when she had the flu just before Christmas, she has started talking, giving eye contact. I honesty can't believe the difference with her. I just switched my daughter to Fiji (she's always drank bottled water anyway). She has just under a liter a day and has been on it for 4 months.” – Jan. 2020
The results of an informal survey of 55 parents giving silica water to their children for controlling seizures revealed the following: 26 found at least 75% reduction, 12 found 25%-74% reduction, 3 found less than 25% reduction, and 14 found no reduction in seizures. Increased speech was observed by 43 of 55 parents after giving their children silica water.
Since OSA in Fiji water is known to only remove aluminum from the body, including the brain, these results give confirmation to the theory that in some cases accumulated aluminum in the body is a causal factor of seizures.
I do recommend starting OSA rich water slowly (i.e. one cup a day for adults and one-half cup for children) and then increasing to 3 to 4 cups a day, if there are no adverse side-effects (see Chapter 7 for side-effects). Both Fiji water and Silicade contain 124ppm of OSA and most children and adults do not have side-effects when drinking these silica waters.

Seizures Due to Vaccine Injury

Children get the largest amount of aluminum in their bodies from aluminum containing vaccines1. For instance the DTaP vaccine, for diphtherias, tetanus, and acellular pertussis, contains the highest amount of aluminum (e.g. 375mcg) as aluminum hydroxide per dose of any vaccine given to children. Note that aluminum hydroxide causes seizures in monkeys(406-409). DTaP vaccine is given four times at 2, 4, 6, and 72 months of age in the U.S.A. The warning given to parents regarding this vaccine is: “Talk with your doctor if your child has a seizure or collapsed after a dose of DTaP”(415). Dravet syndrome is a refractory epileptic syndrome that is linked to inflammation following vaccination with vaccines containing aluminum adjuvants(479).
In order to prevent seizures after being given an aluminum containing vaccine it is recommended that you give your child OSA rich water for at least two months after a vaccination with an aluminum containing vaccine. The only caveat is there has been no study of vaccine efficacy as a function of OSA concentration in drinking water.
Excipients are all ingredients used in a vaccine except the weakened or killed disease virus or bacteria that act as the antigen. The CDC maintains an online appendix of the “Pink Book” titled “Vaccine Excipient & Media Summary” with a table of “Excipients Included in U.S. Vaccines by Vaccine”. Vaccines that contain aluminum are listed in Table 37. In order to keep current on vaccines that contain aluminum look for aluminum or alum containing vaccines in this table:

References

266. Andrasi, E., et al.; Brain Al, Mg, and P contents of control and Alzheimer-diseased patients; J. Alzheimer’s Dis.; 7:273-84 (2005)
404. Camfield, C.S., et al.; Death in children with epilepsy: a population-based study; Lancet; June; 359(9321):1891-5 (2002)
405. Callenbach, P.M., et al.; Mortality risk in children with epilepsy: the Dutch study of epilepsy in childhood; Pediatrics; June; 107(6):1259-63 (2001)
406. Kopeloff, L.M., et al.; Chronic experimental epilepsy in Macaca mulatta; Neuology, 4:218-227 (1954)
407. Soper, V., et al.; Chronic alumina temporal lobe seizures in monkeys; Exp. Neurology; Oct.; 62(1):99-121 (1978)
408. David, J., et al.; Behavioral and electrical correlates of absence seizures induced by thalamic stimulation in juvenile rhesus monkeys with frontal aluminum hydroxide implants: A pharmacologic evaluation; J. Pharmacological Methods; May; 7(3):219-229 (1982)
409. Ward, A.A.; Topical convulsant metals. In: Experimental models of epilepsy. A manual for the laboratory worker, eds. D.P. Purpura, et al.; pp.13-35 New York: Raven Press (1972)
410. Alfey, A.C.; Aluminum toxicity in patients with chronic renal failure; Ther. Drug Monit.; 15:593-97 (1993)
411. Elger, C.E., et al.; Therapeutic problems in patients suffering from aluminum encephalopathy; Neuroimmunologie spinale krankenheiten neuropsychologie metalische enzephalopathien neurologische notfalle interventionelle neuroradiologie verhandlungen der deutschen gesellschaft fur neurologie; 4; K. Poeck, et al. editors; Springer (1987)
412. Glenn, C.M., et al.; Dialysis-associated seizures in children and adolescents; Pediatr. Nephrol.; 6(2):182 (1992)
413. Freiman, S.B., et al.; Seizure and elevated blood aluminum in a remelt furnace operator: connection of coincidence?; Am. J. Emergency Med.; May; 23(3):419-20 (2005)
414. Hantson, P.H., et al.; Encephalopathy with seizures after use of aluminum-containing bone cement; Lancet; Dec.; 344:1647 (1994)
415. CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Vaccines and Preventable Diseases; https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/should-not-vacc.html
477. Mold, M., et al.; Aluminum in brain tissue in epilepsy: A case report from Camelford; Int. J. Environ. Res. Pub. Health; 16(2129):1-11 (2019)
479. Auvin, S., et al.; Altered vaccine-induced immunity in children with Dravet syndrome; Epilepsia; 59:e45-e50 (2018)



Wednesday, October 17, 2018

APOE-e4 Gene - Nigeria


Excerpt from my book Silica Water the Secret of Healthy Blue Zone Longevity in the Aluminum Age

in this write up

OSA is Orthosilicic Acid which is the  bioavailable form of silica

AD is Alzheimer's 

Blue Zones are Demographic regions of the world where people commonly live active lives past the age of 100 years. The areas of which are Okinawa Japan, Sardinia Italy, Nicoya pennisula Costa Rica, Ikaria Greece and the Seventh-Day Adventist in California

 

 

Aluminum and the Risk of AD in People with the APOE-e4 Gene

The APOE-e4 gene increases the concentration of beta-amyloid peptide in the brain and has been linked to a higher risk of AD.  The e4 allele of the APOE gene was introduced into the human population at least 1.5 million years ago280. The reproductive advantage of carrying the e4 allele was to promote human fertility in highly infectious environments in spite of its adverse effects on late onset diseases (i.e. an example of antagonistic pleiotropy)281. Because of this reproductive advantage the e4 allele frequency slowly increased during the last 1.5 million years with currently approximately 14% of the worldwide population carrying the e4 allele280.
Because of improved hygiene and vaccines there is no longer a reproductive advantage to those that carry the e4 allele. In the absence of a reproductive advantage, the e4 allele frequency in the worldwide human population is not predicted to change (e.g. the Hardy-Weinberg principle).
Therefore the recent exponential growth of AD is not due to an exponential increase in e4 allele frequency. Instead the exponential growth of AD is due to a newly introduced environmental chemical that potentiates APOE-e4 making one of its protein products or their derivatives, such as oligomeric beta-amyloid peptide, more neurotoxic. This was proven to be the case by Denise Drago in 2008 when she tested a variety of metal ions (e.g. aluminum, iron, zinc, and copper) and found that only aluminum when bound to the oligomeric beta-amyloid peptide resulted in significantly increased neurotoxicity282.
Aluminum is a causal factor of AD in people with and without the e4 allele of the APOE gene, but in those with this allele there is more oligomeric beta-amyloid for aluminum to toxify. For this reason usually those with the APOE-e4 gene have a higher risk of AD than those without the e4 allele. But what if there is an exception? What if there is an undiscovered Blue Zone on earth where people with the APOE--e4 gene had the same risk of AD as those without the APOE--e4 gene? What if people in this undiscovered Blue Zone drank OSA rich water and ate an OSA rich diet that lowered their aluminum body-burden to the point where they were protected from the APOE-e4 gene?
The Exception – Ibadan, Nigeria an Undiscovered Blue Zone
The exception to APOE-e4 being a casual factor of AD is the Yoruba people of Ibadan, Nigeria who coincidentally have the same e4 allele frequency as people in the U.S.A. From 1992 to 2006 the APOE gene was genotyped in 2,245 elderly Nigerians living in the city of Ibadan who were also clinically diagnosed. Surprisingly, in contrast with other populations, the e4 allele in the Yoruba people was not significantly associated with AD or dementia283.
The Yoruba people living in Ibadan are in general in better health than people living in the U.S.A. Age-matched annual incidence rates of both dementia and AD were found to be 2.4 and 2.2 times lower respectively, in a longitudinal study of a cohort of 2,459 elderly Yoruba people living in Ibadan versus a cohort of 2,147 elderly African-Americans living in Indianapolis, Indiana284.  In addition, these elderly Yoruba people have lower incidence of vascular disease and vascular risk factors including hypertension than does the age matched cohort of elderly in the U.S.A.283.   
OSA in Ibadan’s Drinking Water
Ibadan, Nigeria has a community water system that distributes water from the Eleyele reservoir. Tap water sampled at 11 sites across the distribution system indicated the water contained OSA at 22.4 to 25.6ppm285. This level of OSA in drinking water is approximately the same as average drinking water on mainland Japan (e.g. 26ppm) and more than twice the level of U.S.A. drinking water (e.g. 11ppm).  This more than 2-fold increase of OSA in drinking water is associated with a more than a 10-fold lower rate of death due to AD in Japan versus the U.S.A. (see Table 9).
It is not surprising that both the Yoruba people of Ibadan and Japanese living on mainland Japan both have lower incidence rates of AD than people in the U.S.A., since OSA in drinking water lowers the body-burden of aluminum, a causative factor of AD. It is also not surprising that among the Yoruba people of Ibadan the e4 allele was not significantly associated with AD or dementia, since without a body-burden of aluminum there is no increase in neurotoxicity of oligomeric beta-amyloid. This is the peptide that occurs in higher than normal levels in those people with the APOE-e4 gene.   
OSA in Ibadan’s Food
Nigeria is the leading worldwide producer of cassava with annual production of 45 million metric tons286. Cassava, the most important dietary staple in Nigeria, is a tuber whose skin is very rich in OSA286,287. This makes cassava one of the richest vegetable dietary sources of silicon as OSA (e.g. approximately 270mg of silicon per 100 grams of cassava with skin that is equivalent to 920mg of OSA per 100 grams – see Table 23)286,287.
The cassava root is toxic if not treated properly. Although cassava can be peeled with some difficulty, the tuber is usually cut into pieces with the skin on, dried, and fermented, in order to eliminate toxicity, and finally converted into three main foods by the Yoruba people288.
Gari – granular cassava flour with a ferment flavor and a slightly sour taste is eaten in stews and soups and served with fried fish. Gari is also used as a snack when mixed with milk and sugar.
Fufu – cassava flour mixed into a paste with hot or cold water is ranked next to gari as an indigenous food of the Yoruba people. 
Lafun – fibrous powdery form of cassava that is made into dough with boiling water.
The Yoruba people of Ibadan are a living example of how increased dietary OSA in their drinking water and food can lower the aluminum toxification of the oligomeric beta-amyloid peptide. This is the peptide that occurs in higher than normal levels in those people with the APOE-e4 gene. By following the example of the Yoruba people of Ibadan and increasing dietary OSA by consuming OSA rich drinking water and OSA rich food, the risk of AD is significantly decreased in everyone either with or without the APOE-e4 gene. 

Silica Water Protects Amyloid Beta Regulation

Why are annual incidence rates of both dementia and AD 2.4 and 2.2 times lower respectively in Ibadan, Nigeria than in the U.S.A.? The answer is OSA in the drinking water and food of Ibadan’s inhabitants protects amyloid beta (b-amyloid) regulation in their brains. Amyloid beta is a 36-43 amino acid peptide that is neurotoxic causing inflammation of neurons that can result in cellular death. Excess amyloid beta can also result in plaques in the brain that are a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Due its neurotoxicity amyloid beta is normally regulated in the brain. Amyloid beta regulation involves not producing too much amyloid beta and quickly degrading the amyloid beta that is produced to non-toxic fragments.  Aluminum interferes with both of these processes. Drinking OSA rich water and eating OSA rich vegetables facilitates aluminum excretion, thereby protecting amyloid beta regulation.
Amyloid beta is made enzymatically in the brain by a series of enzymes that cleave off chunks of amyloid precursor protein (APP).  b-secretase 1 (BACE-1) is one of the enzymes involved in making amyloid beta.  Aluminum epigenetically increases expression of b-secretase favoring the production of more amyloid beta289,290.
Oligomers of amyloid beta (dimers, trimers, tetramers, etc.) are neurotoxic. Aluminum complexes of these amyloid beta oligomers are spherical droplets that are even more neurotoxic than amyloid beta oligomers282. Aluminum “freezes” the amyloid beta oligomer by inhibiting its further degradation to smaller fragments291.  The rate-limiting step in the degradation of amyloid beta is catalyzed by the enzyme neprilysin.  Aluminum epigenetically decreases expression of neprilysin that favors more amyloid beta in the brain289,290.
Drinking OSA rich water and eating OSA rich vegetables decreases aluminum in the brain and restores amyloid beta regulation. In addition OSA prevents amyloid beta oligomers from becoming more neurotoxic. Treatment for high levels of amyloid beta in the brain can also be done with aerobic exercise, and sleep.  Aerobic exercise for 30 minutes increases the level of somatostatin in the brain that in turn decreases amyloid beta by increasing the activity of neprilysin1.  Aerobic exercise also increases hippocampal volume292.  In addition, sleep increases somatostatin expression and facilitates the purging of amyloid beta from the brain1,293



280.      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apolipoprotein_E
281.      Van Exel, E., et al.; Effect of APOE 4 allele on survival and fertility in an adverse environment; PLoS ONE; 12(7):e0179497 (2017)
282.      Drago, D., et al.; Potential pathogenic role of b-amyloid1-42-aluminum complex in Alzheimer’s disease; Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.; 40:731-46 (2008)
283.      Gureje, O., et al.; APOE e4 is not associated with Alzheimer’s disease in elderly Nigerians; Ann. Neurol.; Jan.; 59(1):182-185 (2006)
284.      Hendrie, H.C., et al.; Incidence of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease in 2 communities: Yoruba residing in Ibadan, Nigeria, and African Americans residing in Indianapolis, Indiana; JAMA; Feb.; 285(6):739-47 (2001)
285.      Awopetu, M.S., et al.; Water quality in a pipe distribution network: a case study of a communal water distribution network in Ibadan, Nigeria; WTI Transactions on Ecology and the Environment; 171:175-86 (2013)
286.      Adepoju, A.D., et al.; Preparation of silica from cassava periderm; J. Solid Waste Tech. Manag.; 42:216-21 (2016) Cassava peel was hand-sorted for pieces with brown periderm (approximately 5% of the cassava), was ashed at 600oC, and contained 61.5% silicate.
287.      Adebisi, J.A., et al.; Extraction of silica from cassava periderm using modified sol-gel method; Nigerian J. Tech. Dev.; June;15(2):57-65 (2018) TGA of periderm at 600oC results in 30% ash.
288.      Evans, E., et al.; Nigerian indigenous fermented foods: processes and prospects; Mycotoxin and food safety in developing countries; Chapter 7:153-80 (2013)
289.  Luo, Y., et al.; Altered expression of Abeta metabolism-associated molecules from D-galactose/AlCl(3) induced mouse brain; Mech. Ageing Dev. Apr.; 130(4):248-52 (2008)
290.  Sun, Z.Z., et al.; Alteration of Aβ metabolism-related molecules in predementia induced by AlCl3 and D-galactose; Age; 31:277-284 (2009)
291.  Drago, D.; Aluminum modulates effects of beta-amyloid1-42 on neuronal calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial functioning and is altered in a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease; Rejuvenation Reas.; 11(5):861-871 (2008)
292.  Erickson, K. I., Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory; PNAS; 108(7):3017-22 (2011)