Neurons and Exercise

Neurons and Exercise

Monday, October 24, 2016

Halloween Scares Me to Death Because of Aluminum


Halloween Scares Me to Death Because of Aluminum

I remember when the scariest thing on my doorstep at Halloween was a child in a monster or alien costume.  Now I find the scariest thing to be the bags of chocolate and brightly colored candy that are clutched in the hands of small children on my doorstep.  My fear stems from aluminum in both chocolate and the food dyes used for candy.  This aluminum is a neurotoxin that will continue to kill neurons in these children’s brains long after Halloween.  Aluminum has been linked to autism in children and should not be allowed in candy.  Cocoa trees are the source of chocolate. Cocoa trees prefer a clay soil that is rich in aluminum.  This results in 84 samples of chocolate from different sources containing from 170 to 4,260 mcg of aluminum per ounce.

The following table taken from my book “Prevent Alzheimer’s, Autism, and Stroke” shows how much aluminum is in food and candy.

Foods and Sweets Containing Aluminum Lake as an AFC397
Food or Sweets Colored with Aluminum Lake
(Serving Size in Parentheses)
AFC per Serving (mg/Serv.)
Estimated* Amount of Aluminum per Serving (mcg/Serv.)
Kellogg Frosted Cherry Poptart (1) – Red 40
10.1
1,110
Marsh Green Sprinkles Cookie (1) – Yellow 5, Blue 1
1.4
154
Hostess Orange Cupcake (1) – Yellow 5 & 6
3.5
470
Betty Crocker’s Blue Cupcake (1) – Blue 1
1.2
84
Betty Crocker’s Red Cupcake (1) – Red 40
34.7
3,470
Okedoke Cheesy Popcorn (1 cup) – Red 40
3.8
420
Combos (1/3 cup) – Yellow 5 & 6, Blue 1
3.2
350
Hamburger Helper (1 cup prepared) – Yellow 5 & 6
7.7
1040
Scalloped Potatoes (1/2 cup prepared) – Yellow 5 & 6
1.4
190
M&M Milk Chocolate (48 Pieces) – Blue 1 & 2, Yellow 5 & 6, Red 40
29.5
2,950
M&M Peanuts (15) – Blue 1 & 2, Yellow 5 & 6, Red 40
14.1
1,410
Skittles Original(61) –Blue 1 & 2, Yellow 5 & 6, Red 40
33.2
3,320
Reese’s Pieces (51) – Blue 1, Yellow 5 & 6, Red 40
6.6
660
Rainbow Nerds (1 tablespoon) – Blue 1 & 2, Yellow 5 & 6, Red 40
3.7
370
Sprees (8 pieces) – Blue 2, Yellow 5, Red 40
1.9
230
Red Jawbreakers (3) – Red 40
1.2
130
Orange Jawbreakers (3) – Yellow 5 & 6, Red 40
0.4
50
Purple Jawbreakers (3) – Blue 1 & 2, Red 40
0.7
70
Green Jawbreakers (3) – Blue 1 & 2, Yellow 5 & 6
0.5
50
Yellow Jawbreakers (3) – Yellow 5 & 6
0.2
27

AFC stands for artificial food colorant * Assumes no alumina extender and 2 atoms of aluminum per molecule of colorant, except 3 for Yellow 5, and assumes a mixture of 4 colors to be approximately 10% aluminum.

At the beginning of the 20th century a number of synthetic dyes and pigments became available.  They were synthesized from bituminous coal and were called “coal-tar dyes”.  These dyes were less costly to produce and superior in color when compared with natural dyes available at the time.   In the U.S. only seven of these synthetic dyes were initially approved for food under the U.S. Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906. These dyes are in general soluble in water.  In order to add color to candy and prevent the color from “bleeding”, the aluminum salts of these dyes are used as an “Aluminum Lake” in the candy. 

Currently some manufacturers of candy are promising to remove aluminum from candy in the future but for now both chocolate and colored candy is neurotoxic and should not be given to children.  For Halloween this year my wife and I are giving the children on our doorstep rubber spiders and erasers that are too big to swallow.

 

 

Tuesday, October 4, 2016

An Aluminum Free Cake for My Mother's 90th Birthday

A Cake for My Mother’s 90th Birthday

My mother has been suffering from short term memory loss for 4 years.  For the last two years she has followed the recommendations in my book “Prevent Alzheimer’s, Autism, and Stroke” including eliminating all major sources of aluminum from her diet and drinking 3 to 4 cups of Fiji water a day in order to lower her accumulation and increase her excretion of aluminum. Following these recommendations has stopped her declining short term memory loss and stabilized her cognition.

As my mother’s 90th birthday approached I needed to order a decorated vanilla birthday cake that was aluminum free.  Three possible sources of aluminum in a birthday cake are baking powder, food color dyes, and the aluminum baking pan. Calling most of the bake shops in the area revealed that most of them made their standard cakes with baking powder containing alum.  However I finally found Sarah at Iced Bakery who was a baker in town willing to make a custom aluminum-free birthday cake for my mother.
      
Baking Powder

Most baking powders contain alum. Alum is a combination of aluminum and sulfate ions making a salt that sometimes contains additional ions, such as ammonium, potassium, or sodium.  Alum is acidic and when combined with other acids and baking soda is sold as double acting baking powder. Baking powder releases a gas (e.g. carbon dioxide) when heated causing bread and cake to rise.   The use of alum in baking powder continues today but should be banned due to the neurotoxicity of the aluminum it contains (approximately 50mg/tsp.). Other non-aluminum containing acidic salts can be used in place of alum to make baking powder and these salts include mono calcium phosphate and cream of tartar.  “Aluminum-free” baking powder made with mono calcium phosphate and baking soda still contains some aluminum as an impurity (approximately 1mg/tsp.).  Homemade baking powder made with cream of tartar and baking soda has a much lower level of aluminum (less than 0.004mg/tsp.). The recipe for this baking powder is:

                                                2 Tbsp.                  Cream of Tartar (for leavening)
                                                1 Tbsp.                  Baking Soda (for leavening)
                                                1 Tbsp.                  Corn Starch (for anti-clumping)

History of Baking Powder
The first scientist to make the observation that alum in bread is a health problem is the English epidemiologist Dr. James Snow, M.D.  In 1857 Dr. Snow published an article in a British medical journal, “The Lancet”, pointing out that the incidence of rickets in children is higher in London than in towns north and west of London. Rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults is due to a lack of sufficient calcium and phosphate for bone strength and vitamin D for calcium absorption. With the help of a chemist, by the name of Dr. Arthur Hill Hassall, Dr. Snow had found that baker’s bread made in London contained alum while homemade bread made in towns north and west of London contained no alum. Dr. Snow suggested that aluminum complexed with phosphate preventing the absorption of phosphate in the gut required for strong bones. It took 128 years for research to fully explain why aluminum can cause rickets and osteomalacia. In early 1980s J.A. Roberston, et al. (1983), W.G. Goodman, et al. (1984), and G.L. Klein, et al. (1985) found in rats, dogs, and humans that aluminum inhibits the biosynthesis of the active form of vitamin D that is required for calcium absorption.  More recently it has been discovered that neurotoxic forms of aluminum, such as alum, also cause a wide variety of neurologic diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, autism, and stroke.

The Royal Baking Company of Fort Wayne, Indiana was organized in 1873 and through extensive advertising and branding became the premier manufacturer of baking powder in the U.S during the late 1800s.  Their baking powder was made from cream of tartar (a by-product of wine production) and baking soda (a.k.a. sodium bicarbonate).  The recipe was developed by Brothers Joseph and Cornelius Hoagland and pharmacist William Ziegler. Their business grew and was moved to New York in 1890 to become the largest producer of baking powder in the U.S.  In 1889 William M. Wright with the help of chemist George Campbell Rew developed double acting baking soda made with baking soda and two acids, monocalcium phosphate and alum (sodium aluminum sulfate).  This mixture was less expensive than using cream of tartar and the baking powder was advertised as releasing carbon dioxide over a wider temperature range. They marketed their product under the name Calumet Baking Powder. In 1928 the firm was sold to General Foods and it became the largest producer of baking powder in the U.S.

The popularity of alum containing baking powder is in spite of health warnings by dietary experts and a bitter metallic flavor that is experienced by approximately 30% of those who eat the resulting bake-goods. In 1897 eight years after alum containing double acting baking powder was developed, N.Y. University Professor of Clinical Medicine, W. Gilman Thompson, M.D. warned in his book “Practical Dietetics” that “Baking Powder … should be free from alum …”.  In spite of warnings and research showing aluminum is a neurotoxin, double acting baking powder is still recommended today in popular books on baking such as James Peterson’s “Baking” published in 2009.

Artificial Food Color Dyes

Many artificial food color dyes (AFCs) contain the aluminum salt of the colorant and in some cases colorants are combined with alumina (a.k.a. aluminum oxide).  The total amount of AFCs added to food per person in the U.S. rose 5-fold from 1950 (12mg/person/day) to 2012 (62mg/person/day). On average 10% of aluminum containing AFCs is aluminum.

Although Sarah agreed to make an aluminum free cake for my mother, she did not realize until reading the ingredients that her colorants for the icing contained “Aluminum Lakes”.  Manufacturers of AFCs are required to list aluminum salts of colorants as “Aluminum Lake” on the package.  In order to eliminate aluminum and still color the icing on my mother’s cake I agreed to send Sarah a set of pink, blue, and yellow natural food dyes made by ColorKitchen.  These natural dyes use beet juice extract for pink, an extract of blue-green algae (a.k.a. spirulina) for blue, and turmeric extract for yellow.  These natural dyes do not contain aluminum but look just as good as AFCs that do contain aluminum.



History of Artificial Food Dyes

At the beginning of the 20th century a number of synthetic dyes and pigments became available.  They were synthesized from bituminous coal and were called “coal-tar dyes”.  These dyes were less costly to produce and superior in color when compared with natural dyes available at the time.   In the U.S. only seven of these synthetic dyes were initially approved for food under the U.S. Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906. These dyes are in general soluble in water but not soluble in fats and oils. In order to add color to icing used on cakes, the aluminum salts of these dyes are used as an “Aluminum Lake” in the icing.  The Lakes are not soluble, but are dispersible in the icing. In general Lakes are more stable than natural dyes.  In addition to cake icing these “Aluminum Lake” dyes are used for coated tablets, candies and chewing gums, lipsticks, soaps, shampoos, and talcs.

Aluminum Baking Pan

Acidic and/or fluoride containing cake mix, baking powder, and water used to prepare the cake mix will corrode the aluminum baking pan releasing neurotoxic aluminum ions into the cake during baking.  The easiest way to eliminate this source of aluminum is to use a stainless steel baking pan.  There are also thin plastic sheet liners for baking pans that will withstand baking temperatures up to 400 degrees Fahrenheit. These disposable liners, made of PET (a.k.a. polyethylene terephthalate, PTL, PETE, CPET), not only allow baking in an aluminum pan without adding aluminum to the cake but also make cleanup easier. Likewise the use of an aluminum baking pan lined with parchment paper will prevent aluminum corrosion from adding neurotoxic aluminum ions to the cake.
 
History of Aluminum Cookware

At the 1901 Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York, aluminum cookware was first introduced to housewives, who wisely viewed it with suspicion because of concerns about the quality of the cookware and the toxicity of aluminum. It took approximately 50 years before aluminum pots and pans gained acceptance. Because it is lighter and less costly than the alternatives, currently aluminum is the most common cookware on the market.

Conclusion

With Sarah’s help as the baker, I can give my mother a beautiful custom aluminum-free birthday cake for her 90th birthday party.

From the historical data presented here it is evident that this custom aluminum-free cake would have been the standard cake in the late 1800’s.  Since 1900 aluminum containing double acting baking powder, “Aluminum Lake” containing artificial food dyes, and aluminum baking pans have become popular.  All of these add aluminum to cakes that we currently consider the new standard cake. This aluminum contamination extends to all commercial baked goods, such as bread, muffins, cupcakes, pancakes, waffles, and biscuits.


The fact that aluminum containing double acting baking powder, “Aluminum Lake” artificial food dyes, and aluminum cookware all became popular in the early 1900’s explains why Alzheimer’s and autism are modern diseases  first observed in the early 1900’s.  It is time that consumers demand aluminum free food, including bake-goods, for our brain health and the brain health of our family. For more details on how to eliminate aluminum from your body and your diet, please read my book entitled “Prevent Alzheimer’s, Autism, and Stroke With 7 Supplements, 7 Lifestyle Choices, and a Dissolved Mineral”.

For more information about sources of Aluminum view the video my wife and I made on YouTube titled:
Brain Fitness in the Aluminum Age - Eliminating Aluminum. 

Wednesday, September 7, 2016

Introduction to the blog

Introduction


Welcome to my blog. This blog introduces you to the culprit responsible for Alzheimer’s, autism, and stroke.  This monster lurks in our food, drinking water, pharmaceuticals, and brains.  This blog also introduces you to 7 supplements, 7 lifestyle choices, and one dissolved mineral which work together to prevent the monster from causing Alzheimer’s, autism, and stroke in your brain and the brains of those you love. 

My interest in dementia started after an acquaintance died of the after-effects of a stroke and my mother and a friend’s mother, both 86 years old, began suffering severe frustration and panic attacks due to short term memory failure.  Having no preconceived notions about dementia and autism, I spent a number of years reading research articles in scientific journals. The search for the causes of Alzheimer’s, autism, and stroke started as a mystery and once solved it transformed into a crusade to rid my life of an evil monster.  I found this monster lurking in my medicine cabinet, food pantries, refrigerator, and the water pipes leading into my home.   This monster has been damaging the brains of newborn infants, elderly family members, and everyone in between for years.  It has remained undetected because of our lack of information and false reassurances by those in positions of responsibility who we have trusted with our health. It is time to take on this monster as both individuals and as a culture.  Wake up, read this blog and my book, and become informed before this monster claims your brain and the brains of those you love. I had not originally planned to write a blog or a book but once the monster was unveiled, I had no other choice. 

The close relationship of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) to autism, and stoke will be discussed.  These diseases are modern mismatch diseases created by our carefully evolved brains attempting to function in the presence of a chemical monster not experienced during the brain’s evolution.

The underlying goal of this blog is to create a cultural change in the way we view Alzheimer’s, autism, and stroke.  This blog encourages preventative measures to be taken by you and your family. It also encourages cultural changes on a larger scale than your family. For these changes to take place we need more people all wanting the same changes. So please tell family and friends about this blog. 

My book, Prevent Alzheimer's Autism and Stroke with 7 Supplements, 7 Lifestyle Choices and a Dissolved Mineral, is available on Amazon in print and kindle.  



Introduction to my book Prevent Alzheimer's, autisim and stroke with 7 Supplements, 7 Lifestyle Choices, and a Dissolved Mineral

Introduction

I have found a surprising connection between Alzheimer’s, autism, and stroke and this ground-breaking book describes their common causal factor.  These diseases are modern mismatch diseases created by our brains attempting to function in the presence of a chemical monster at levels not experienced during the brain’s evolution. This book describes specific preventative measures to be taken by you and your family to rid yourself of this chemical monster. It also encourages cultural changes that will allow our society to prevent these mismatch diseases. Most importantly a preventative system for individuals is described in this book involving 7 specific supplements, 7 lifestyle choices, and a dissolved mineral that will prevent Alzheimer’s, autism, and stroke.  This is also a combination therapy that has been shown to reverse the cognitive decline seen in early-stage Alzheimer’s disease.  Elements of this combination therapy have also been found to reverse the course of autism in the very young and the course of hardening of the arteries and stroke in the very old.
My interest in dementia started after an acquaintance died of the after-effects of a stroke and my mother and a friend’s mother, both 86 years old at the time, began suffering severe frustration and panic attacks due to short term memory failure.  Having no preconceived notions about dementia and autism, I spent a number of years reading research articles in scientific journals. The search for the causes of Alzheimer’s and stroke started as a mystery and led to a surprising connection with the cause of autism. Once the mystery was solved it transformed into a crusade.  I found this monster lurking in my medicine cabinet, food pantries, refrigerator, and the water pipes leading into my home.   This monster has been damaging the brains of newborn infants, elderly family members, and everyone in between for years.  It is time to take on this monster as both individuals and as a culture. Reading the book will allow you to make an informed decision about what recommendations you will use to prevent this monster from claiming your brain and the brains of those you love.



Being a biochemist I am naturally suspicious of supplementing my diet with impure herbal extracts.  Small traces of toxic impurities in these extracts can do damage to your body and especially your brain.  Therefore this book only recommends supplements containing purified biochemicals and a dissolved mineral all of which are commonly found in your body.
The Alzheimer’s Association finds that Alzheimer’s disease is grossly misunderstood and underestimated.  When they surveyed people in 12 countries they found: 
 “59 percent of people surveyed incorrectly believe that Alzheimer's disease is a typical part of ageing and 40 percent of people believe that Alzheimer's is not fatal”.


Alzheimer’s (AD) is a currently a terminal disease but it is not an inevitable part of aging.  The following table will give you some “food” for thought.  Does this table suggest that AD is a typical part of ageing? 

There are countries in the world, such as Malaysia and Singapore, where people with similar life expectancy to the U.S. have much less AD.   This book explains why AD is not prevalent in some parts of the world and how countries like the U.S. can lower their rate of AD.  This book also explains how individuals can take steps to lower their risk of AD and work toward cultural changes in their countries to lower the rate of AD. True prevention is only possible by first discovering the cause of a disease such as Alzheimer’s. The book begins as I did, searching for the cause of Alzheimer’s.  I hope you join me in this exciting search by reading Chapter 1.

Monday, September 5, 2016

Chapter 1 Conclusion - Prevalence, Symptoms, Diagnosis of AD

Prevalence of Alzheimer’s Disease

The 2002 ADAMS study of dementia in the U.S. estimated that 2.7 million people in the U.S. had Alzheimer’s disease (AD)11 and by the year 2005, 24 million people worldwide had AD67.   AD prevalence is the highest in those 80 years of age and older. In 2002 there were 9 million people in the U.S. who are 80 years of age or older10. Therefore in 2002 approximately one in three people 80 years of age or older had AD.  This means almost everyone over 80 will be impacted by AD as they age.  Those of us who live to 80 and beyond will have at least a 1 in 3 chance of getting AD and, if we don’t get AD, we have at least a 1 in 2 chance of caring for a friend or relative with AD.  
The prevalence of AD is increasing both as the size of the population in the U.S. over age 65 continues to increase and as our exposure to aluminum continues to increase.  Currently the Alzheimer’s Association estimates that 5.3 million people in the U.S. have AD4.  By 2025 the number of people 65 and older with AD is estimated to reach 7.1 million and by 2050 this number is projected to be 13.8 million, barring adoption of preventive measures, such as those described in this book, or the development of medical cures. 


Symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease

The clinical symptoms that characterize AD are:

·         Mitochondrial disease
·         Decreasing Aβ peptides and Aβ oligomers in cerebrospinal fluid
·         Increasing tau in the cerebrospinal fluid
·         Shrinkage of the brain
·         Olfactory dysfunction*
*Olfactory dysfunction or anosmia (i.e. the inability to smell) is among the first signs of AD and Parkinson’s Disease144,145.  
The behavioral symptoms that are a result of cognitive impairment and characterize AD are4:
·         Short term memory loss that disrupts daily life
·         Difficulty in planning and problem solving
·         Difficulty completing familiar tasks
·         Confusion with time and place
·         Confusion with visual and spatial relationships
·         Difficulty with word finding during speaking and writing
·         Increased daytime sleepiness*
·         Changes in mood and personality
·         Withdrawal from work or social activities
·        Decreased or poor judgement
*Sleepiness is measured by timing how long it takes for an individual to fall asleep while laying on a bed in a quite dark room.  The largest difference in sleepiness between non-AD (16min.), mild AD (11min.), and moderate AD (8min.) was observed at 10AM and 12PM146.  In those with dementia, including AD, sleepiness should not be confused with 5 to 20 second long fainting spells, called syncope, that start abruptly and end with spontaneous recovery147,148

Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that is a terminal illness with an average life expectancy of three to nine years post diagnosis.  The AD process occurs in stages 5 to 20 years before the first symptom of cognitive impairment is observed. The stages of AD are as follows: 
·         The first stage of this process involves aluminum facilitating the formation of small soluble protein fragments from amyloid precursor protein (APP), such as Aβ peptides and Aβ oligomers, and insoluble Aβ plaques between neurons. Aluminum conjugates of Aβ oligomers are much more neurotoxic than any other APP metabolite16. Aluminum’s epigenetic effect of lowering gene expression for both neprilysin and LDL Receptor LRP1, and increasing gene expression for both BACE1 and APP results in more Aβ peptides and Aβ oligomers, and insoluble Aβ plaques30,31 . Aluminum chloride with D-galactose has been found to create predementia in a mouse model for AD104The first stage of AD can be detected in humans as decreasing levels of Aβ peptides and Aβ oligomers in the cerebrospinal fluid.  These levels decrease as the peptides and oligomers are formed into insoluble Aβ plaques.  

·         The second stage of this process involves aluminum facilitating tau protein clumping together in tangles (NFTs).  Normally tau protein is used for microtubule assembly and stabilization in neurons. Aluminum’s epigenetic effect of lowering the production of the enzyme PP2A and aluminum’s inhibition of PP2A results in excess phosphoryl groups on tau22,99,100,136. Aluminum also facilitates the formation of NFTs from these over phosphorylated tau proteins24,25. NFT formation results in the death of neurons that are replaced with “tombstones” or “ghosts” of NFTs. The second stage can be detected as increasing levels of tau in cerebrospinal fluid.

·         The third stage is called mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and it occurs 1 to 4 years prior to a person being diagnosed with AD.  MCI is characterized by poor decision making and difficulty in remembering recent events and other lapses of memory.  These symptoms are due to aluminum causing microtubule loss, dendritic die-back, and cortical atrophy resulting in slow loss of memory149.  MCI can also be a symptom of metabolic (non-AD) dementia that may be curable (see Appendix II).

·         The fourth stage is called Alzheimer’s disease because it can be diagnosed as a slow loss of cognition with symptoms including difficulties with word recall and disorientation, such as getting lost, mood swings and behavioral issues.  These symptoms are due to substantial neuron damage and loss, called lesions, in areas of the brain related to short term and long term memory and decision making.  The severity of this stage can be gauged by performing either volumetric MRI to measure the shrinkages of the brain due to neurons expiring or FDG-PET that gauges the health of mitochondria in neurons.

If you are like me and have one or more aging parents, you may already have witnessed the slow decline of their short term memory. It is disturbing to realize they may have reached the 3rd stage of AD without even being aware their brains have the hallmarks of AD.  Also if you are like me you may worry that your own brain is beginning that downward spiral into AD.  Until recently it was only in the 4th stage that the disease could be diagnosed and called AD.  This late stage diagnosis of AD requires two major symptoms with short term memory loss usually being one of the two symptoms. 
According to the Alzheimer’s Association only 45% of those with AD or their caregivers report being told of an AD diagnosis. In part this is due to the difficulty in making the diagnosis. Until recently examination of brain tissue after death was required for a definitive diagnosis of AD.  The two hallmarks of AD histopathology are:
·         Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) inside neurons and “tombstones” or “ghosts” of former neurons in between living neurons.
·         Insoluble Aβ plaques formed from Aβ peptides and oligomers in between living neurons.
See sidebar on “Biochemistry and Neurochemistry of AD” for details on these two hallmarks.
One reason it has been difficult to prove what causes AD is that the symptoms of AD become apparent only in the 3rd and 4th stage and a definitive diagnosis of AD has required an autopsy.  A new class of ligands has recently been developed that allows for brain imaging by PET scans of both NFTs150 and Aβ plaques151. This allows researchers to follow the development of the hallmarks of AD histopathology in living patients.  These tests should facilitate our understanding of how aluminum and possibly other environmental toxins cause AD. These tests should also allow faster testing of drugs under development that will provide palliative relief from the symptoms of AD, if not a cure for AD. 
Conclusion of Alzheimer’s Disease
For the last 50 years, in spite of excellent research, the cause of Alzheimer’s has remained controversial.  It may be years before all the needed research is performed and the controversy ends. But now a tipping point has been reached and as described in this chapter there is convincing evidence that aluminum accumulation in our brains can cause Alzheimer’s disease.  Aluminum absorption in select areas of the human brain can result in the cognitive deterioration and associated cerebral pathology seen in AD as described in the following list:
·         Increased amyloid plaque formation in the brain that is a hallmark of AD
·         Increased phosphorylation of tau protein leading to neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) that are a hallmark of AD
·         Inhibition of mitochondrial enzymes resulting in mitochondrial disease that is a clinical symptom of AD
·         Lesions in the perforant neuronal pathway resulting in loss of short term memory that is a behavioral symptom of AD
The presence of mixed cerebral pathologies becomes more common in individuals with advancing age. Forty-five percent of those over 90 with dementia had a multiple number of cerebral pathologies97. The presence of multiple pathologies is associated with increased likelihood and severity of dementia. AD as a single pathology is present in 28% of those over 90 without dementia and 23% with dementia. When a single additional pathology in addition to AD is present the chance of dementia is four times higher than with just AD pathology. When any three or more of these pathologies is present, the chance of dementia is 95% in those over 9097.  In addition to aluminum being a causal factor for AD, it has also been implicated as a casual factor for other cerebral pathologies (see Appendix I, III, and IV). For instance in Chapter 2 aluminum’s role as a causal factor for strokes and white matter disease is discussed. This is not to say that aluminum is the only cause of cerebral pathologies.  There are numerous environmental chemicals and several factors, such as head trauma, that have been implicated in cerebral pathologies (see Appendix I). Future research may find additional chemicals in our environment and additional factors that cause cerebral pathologies.
Since the commercial production of aluminum began, there has been a dramatic increase in AD cases worldwide.  There are cases of accidental and occupational exposure to aluminum that have shown that aluminum can cause both early-onset AD and the hallmarks of AD. 
The Alzheimer’s Association finds that Alzheimer’s disease is grossly misunderstood and underestimated.  When they surveyed people in 12 countries they found: 
 “59 percent of people surveyed incorrectly believe that Alzheimer's disease is a typical part of ageing”.

As a society we have made an incorrect assumption:
                “Because we now live longer, more of us will die of Alzheimer’s disease”   
This assumption is a self-fulfilling prophecy unless action is taken by individuals to lower their exposure to aluminum and society to improve regulations on the amount of aluminum in food, drink, and pharmaceuticals.  By lowering our aluminum ingestion and absorption we may be able to live longer without developing and suffering from AD. 
The people of Malaysia and Singapore have a much lower death rate due to AD than the U.S even though they have a similar life expectancy. Could the people of Malaysia and Singapore be ingesting a dissolved mineral called OSA that increases aluminum excretion by their bodies?  See Chapter 5 for the answers to these questions. In Chapter 4 we will discuss ways to avoid or lower aluminum ingestion and in Chapter 5 we will discuss how to decrease aluminum absorption by your brain after ingesting aluminum.